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2 - Aggregate Gradation and Sampling - Civil …

Aggregate Gradation Important Properties Gradation Relative density and absorption Hardness (resistance to wear). Durability (resistance to weathering). Shape and surface texture Deleterious substances Crushing strength Soft and lightweight particles Chemical stability CIVL 3137 2. Gradation analysis . percent coarser .. or . percent retained .. Percentages are calculated by mass percent finer .. or . percent pas sin g .. CIVL 3137 3. Gradation Chart 100. 80. Percent Passing 60. Total mass percent passing each sieve 40. 20. 0. Opening Size (mm). CIVL 3137 4. Gradation Chart 100. 80. Percent Passing 60. Total mass percent passing each sieve 40. 20. 0. Opening Size (mm). CIVL 3137 5. Sieve Shakers CIVL 3137 8. Screen Shakers CIVL 3137 9. Sieve Sizes CIVL 3137 10. Gradation Chart 1 " " 3/ ". 8 4 8 16 30 50 100 200. 100. 80.

CIVL 3137 3 Gradation Analysis percent coarser or percent retained percent finer or percent passing

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Transcription of 2 - Aggregate Gradation and Sampling - Civil …

1 Aggregate Gradation Important Properties Gradation Relative density and absorption Hardness (resistance to wear). Durability (resistance to weathering). Shape and surface texture Deleterious substances Crushing strength Soft and lightweight particles Chemical stability CIVL 3137 2. Gradation analysis . percent coarser .. or . percent retained .. Percentages are calculated by mass percent finer .. or . percent pas sin g .. CIVL 3137 3. Gradation Chart 100. 80. Percent Passing 60. Total mass percent passing each sieve 40. 20. 0. Opening Size (mm). CIVL 3137 4. Gradation Chart 100. 80. Percent Passing 60. Total mass percent passing each sieve 40. 20. 0. Opening Size (mm). CIVL 3137 5. Sieve Shakers CIVL 3137 8. Screen Shakers CIVL 3137 9. Sieve Sizes CIVL 3137 10. Gradation Chart 1 " " 3/ ". 8 4 8 16 30 50 100 200. 100. 80.

2 Percent Passing (%). 60. 40. 20. 0. 100 10 1 Opening Size (mm). CIVL 3137 11. Gradation Example CIVL 3137 12. Uniformly Graded Aggregate 1 " " 3/ ". 8 4 8 16 30 50 100 200. 100. Percent Passing 80. uniform 60. sand clear . 40 gravel 20. 0. 100 10 1 Opening Size (mm). CIVL 3137 13. Uniformly Graded Aggregate Narrow range of sizes Grain-to-grain contact High void content High permeability Low stability Difficult to compact CIVL 3137 14. Open-Graded Aggregate 1 " " 3/ ". 8 4 8 16 30 50 100 200. 100. Open Percent Passing 80. graded sand 60. Open 40. graded gravel 20. 0. 100 10 1 Opening Size (mm). CIVL 3137 15. Open-Graded Aggregate Few fine particles Grain-to-grain contact High void content High permeability High stability Difficult to compact CIVL 3137 16. screenings CIVL 3137 17. Gap-Graded Aggregate 1 " " 3/ ". 8 4 8 16 30 50 100 200.

3 100. Open Percent Passing 80. graded sand 60. Open Gap 40. graded graded gravel blend 20. 0. 100 10 1 Opening Size (mm). CIVL 3137 18. Gap-Graded Aggregate Missing middle sizes No grain-to-grain contact Moderate void content Moderate permeability Low stability Easy to compact CIVL 3137 19. Dense-Graded Aggregate 1 " " 3/ ". 8 4 8 16 30 50 100 200. 100. Percent Passing 80. 60. 40. Dense graded 20 gravel 0. 100 10 1 Opening Size (mm). CIVL 3137 20. Dense-Graded Aggregate Wide range of sizes Grain-to-grain contact Low void content Low permeability High stability Difficult to compact CIVL 3137 21. Fuller's Curve Fuller, and Thompson, The laws of proportioning concrete," Transactions of the ASCE, v. 159, 1907. pi = percent passing ith sieve di . pi di = opening size of ith sieve D D = maximum particle size CIVL 3137 22. CIVL 3137 23.

4 Maximum Density Curve In 1962 FHWA published a modified version of Fuller's equation with a different exponent. pi = percent passing ith sieve di . pi di = opening size of ith sieve D D = maximum particle size CIVL 3137 24. CIVL 3137 25. Dense-Graded Aggregate 1 " " 3/ ". 8 4 8 16 30 50 100 200. 100. 80. TDOT 411-D. Percent Passing 60. 40 Maximum Density Curve 20. 0. 100 10 1 Opening Size (mm). CIVL 3137 28. Dense-Graded Aggregate 200 30 8 4 3/ ". 8. 1/ " 5/ ". 2 8 ". 100. 80. Percent Passing TDOT 411-D. 60. 40 Maximum Density Curve 20. 0. 0 1 2 3 4 5. Opening Size (mm) Raised to the Power CIVL 3137 29. Aggregate Sampling Aggregate Stockpiles CIVL 3137 31. Aggregate Sampling CIVL 3137 32. Nominal Aggregate Sizes 1 " " 3/ ". 8 4 8 16 30 50 100 200. 100. Nominal Maximum = 3/8 . Percent Passing 80. 60. 40. 20. Nominal Minimum = #16.

5 0. 100 10 1 Opening Size (mm). CIVL 3137 33. Aggregate Sampling CIVL 3137 34. Minimum Sample Size 300. CIVL 3137 35. Sample Quartering CIVL 3137 36. Sample Splitting CIVL 3137 37. Lab 1 Notes Materials Crushed Stone Assume " NMAS for convenience Gravel Assume " NMAS. Concrete Sand Assume NMAS (No. 4 Sieve). CIVL 3137 39. Crushed Stone CIVL 3137 40. Crushed Stone CIVL 3137 41. Crushed Stone CIVL 3137 42. Crushed Stone CIVL 3137 43. Gravel CIVL 3137 44. Gravel CIVL 3137 45. Concrete Sand CIVL 3137 46. Concrete Sand 300. CIVL 3137 47. Gravel and Concrete Sand CIVL 3137 48. Gravel and Concrete Sand CIVL 3137 49.


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