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粘土鉱物学の基礎 (2 ... - sci.kagoshima-u.ac.jp

(2) . 1 .. 2 X . X .. 2 3 .. (Pauling's Rules ). 1st Rule The cation-anion distance = radii Can use RC/RA to determine the coordination number of the cation This is an important rule to constract crystal structure of clay minerals .. Si-O (SiO4) Al-O (AlO6) or Mg-O (MgO6). - (Si4O10 / ) - (Al4O12 or Mg6O12/ ).. A) B) . d (001). d (001). d (001) = . d (001) = .. Pyrophyllite Al2Si4O10(OH) 2. Mica KAl2( Si3Al)O10(OH) 2. Smectite (Al2)( )O10(OH) 2. Vermiculite (Mg3)( )O10(OH) 2. Chlorite (Mg,Al)6(Si,Al)4O10(OH) 8. Kaolinite Al2Si2O5(OH) 4. Halloysite Al2Si2O5(OH) 4.. Smectite group minerals Montmorillonite ( )Si4O10(OH)2. Beidelite ( )( )O10(OH)2. Nontronite (Fe3+ )( )O10(OH)2. Saponite ( )( )O10(OH)2. Hectorite Pyrophyllite Al4Si8O20(OH)4. ( )Si4O10(OH)2. Total charge = (3 4)+(4 8) + (-2 20) +(-1 4) = 12 + 32 + (-40) + (-4). = 44 + (-44) = 0. 2 3 . A) Trioctahedral type M1 .. Trance position B) Dioctahedral type M2, M3 .. Cis position Brucite (Mg(OH)2) Mg6(OH)12. a = , b =.

ポーリングの原理 (Pauling’s Rules ) 1st Rule The cation-anion distance = radii Can use RC/RA to determine the coordination number of the cation This is an important rule to constract crystal structure

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Transcription of 粘土鉱物学の基礎 (2 ... - sci.kagoshima-u.ac.jp

1 (2) . 1 .. 2 X . X .. 2 3 .. (Pauling's Rules ). 1st Rule The cation-anion distance = radii Can use RC/RA to determine the coordination number of the cation This is an important rule to constract crystal structure of clay minerals .. Si-O (SiO4) Al-O (AlO6) or Mg-O (MgO6). - (Si4O10 / ) - (Al4O12 or Mg6O12/ ).. A) B) . d (001). d (001). d (001) = . d (001) = .. Pyrophyllite Al2Si4O10(OH) 2. Mica KAl2( Si3Al)O10(OH) 2. Smectite (Al2)( )O10(OH) 2. Vermiculite (Mg3)( )O10(OH) 2. Chlorite (Mg,Al)6(Si,Al)4O10(OH) 8. Kaolinite Al2Si2O5(OH) 4. Halloysite Al2Si2O5(OH) 4.. Smectite group minerals Montmorillonite ( )Si4O10(OH)2. Beidelite ( )( )O10(OH)2. Nontronite (Fe3+ )( )O10(OH)2. Saponite ( )( )O10(OH)2. Hectorite Pyrophyllite Al4Si8O20(OH)4. ( )Si4O10(OH)2. Total charge = (3 4)+(4 8) + (-2 20) +(-1 4) = 12 + 32 + (-40) + (-4). = 44 + (-44) = 0. 2 3 . A) Trioctahedral type M1 .. Trance position B) Dioctahedral type M2, M3 .. Cis position Brucite (Mg(OH)2) Mg6(OH)12. a = , b =.

2 Gibbsite (Al(OH)3) Al4(OH)12. a = , b = .. Allophane Proto-imogolite allophane (Si/Al = ). Proto-halloysite allophane (Si/Al = ). Hydrous feldspathoid Amorphous silica Amorphous Al(OH) 3. Amorphous Fe(OH) 3. Ferrihydrite X . A) Randomly oriented crystals B) Oriended crystals X . XRD profiles of kaolinite XRD profiles of halloysite .. A) Randomly A) Randomly oriented sample oriented sample .. B) O riented sample . B) Oriented sample .. C) Oriented sample (EG treated).. D) O riented sample 10 20 30 40 50 60. (Heated at 300 ). 2 (CuK ) / DEGREE. 10 20 30 40 50 60. 2 (CuK ) / DEGREE. X . A) After various treatments B) After ion exchange .. A) RAndomly oriented sample A) Ca-saturated .. B) Oriented sample . B) Mg-saturated .. C) EG treated C) Na-saturated .. D) Heated at 400 . D) K-saturated .. 10 20 30 40 10 20 30 40. 2 (CuK ) / DEGREE 2 (CuK ) / DEGREE.. Ca2+ > Na+ > K+. 3 > 2 . X . Regularly Interstratified Randomly Interstratified illite/smectite illite/smectite Reichweite = 1 Reichweite = 0.

3 (PS-I = 1 if PI ) (PS-I = PI).. Sample A Sample B. Reichweite=1 Reichweite=1. PM = , PS= PM = , PS= . Reichweite G = 0.. Reichweite G = 1, 2, 3, .. A. B.. XRD profile of chlorite XRD profiles of tosudite 2 3 . XRD profiles of clay minerals d(060)= . d(060)= . 56 58 60 62 64 66 68 70. 2 (CuK ) / DEGREE. Dioctahedral type: b = Dioctahedral type: d(060) = . Trioctahedral type: b = Trioctahedral type: d(060) = .. XRD profiles of kaolin minerals a) Kaolinite b) Dickite c) Nacrite . XRD profiles of 2M1 illite A) Randomly oriented sample 1M 2M1 2M2.. 22 24 26 28 30 32. 3T 6H 2 (CuK ) / DEGREE.. a . B) Oriented sample b .. 10 20 30 40 50 60. 2 (CuK ) / DEGREE. X . XRD profiles IR spectra .. Allophane (Si/Al= ).. Amorphuos Al(OH)3.. Hydrous feldspathoid (Si/Al= ). Hydrous feldspathoid (Si/Al= ). Hydrous feldspathoid (Si/Al= ). Amorphous Si 10 20 30 40 50 60 70. DEGREE 2 CuK RADIATION.


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