1 ISSN 1810-0708. 4. FAO animal PRODUCTION AND HEALTH. guidelines A value chain approach TO. animal diseases . RISK management . Technical foundations and practical framework for eld application Cover photographs: Left: @FAO/Hoang Dinh Nam Center: FAO/Peter Roeder Right: Kimoto 4. FAO animal PRODUCTION AND HEALTH. guidelines A value chain approach TO. animal diseases . RISK management . Technical foundations and practical framework for eld application FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS. Rome, 2011. Recommended Citation FAO. 2011. A value chain approach to animal diseases risk management Technical foundations and practical framework for eld application.
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4 FAO 2011. iii Contents Acknowledgements vii Acronyms and abbreviations viii Summary ix PART 1. Technical Foundations Why a value chain approach to management of disease risks ? 1. Risk-based, people-centred control of disease risks in livestock value chains 1. Systematic thinking a basis for transparent and evidence-based planning 3. value chains and value chain analysis for the purposes of management of animal disease risks 7. What are value chains? 7. value chain analysis 9. Summary 13. Risk Analysis 15. Risk analysis key concepts and principles 15. The value of qualitative risk analysis 21. PART 2. Practical Framework Step 1: Situation analysis and preliminary risk analysis 25.
5 Descriptive epidemiology of the situation regarding the disease (s) of concern 25. Carrying out value chain analysis 25. Identifying risk issues and risk hotspots in value chains 30. Step 2: Detailed risk and value chain analysis leading to planning of risk management options 39. Detailed risk analysis focused on risk hotspots 39. iv Step 3: Option appraisal and design of strategy 51. Analysis of impacts on different stakeholders 52. Choice of interventions decision-making criteria 54. Concluding remarks 59. ANNEX 1. Risk pathway analysis and risk control 63. Risk pathway analysis 63. Risk control using risk pathways to identify risk control points 71.
6 ANNEX 2. Developing and analysing enterprise budgets 75. Objectives 75. Developing an enterprise budget analysis 75. Notes of caution 83. ANNEX 3. Outline for information gathering on poultry value chain 85. Objective 85. Diagrams and maps 86. Points to remember: 86. Example of an outline for a workshop with government veterinary services and livestock and trade staff at province level 87. ANNEX 4. Semi-structured interview guides for different poultry-related sites 89. Feed plants 89. Grand parent and parent flocks 90. Hatcheries 94. Commercial poultry farms 97. Traders 101. Markets, collection points (where trading may take place), dealers premises 102.
7 Slaughter points/houses 106. Village poultry, household poultry, backyard poultry, non-commercial poultry (perhaps defined as flocks of up to 20 or 50 maximum) 108. v ANNEX 5. Example of a preliminary risk analysis table for risk of foot- and-mouth disease (FMD) in northern Viet Nam 109. ANNEX 6. Example of a detailed risk assessment and risk mitigation analysis Viet Nam 113. References 123. Tables 1. Template for a preliminary risk analysis table 36. 2. Template for detailed descriptive risk assessment 47. 3. An example of a part of a detailed descriptive risk assessment addressing risk of spreading FMD within a country 48.
8 4. Tabular framework for analysis of impacts on different stakeholders 54. 5. Tabulation of a risk pathway analysis for the risk of importing pigs infected with classical swine fever (CSF) virus 67. 6. Seasonal calendar format to develop a participatory enterprise budget 76. 7. Estimation of the annual output for a small scale hen egg laying enterprise 76. 8. Estimation of the variable costs for a small scale hen egg laying enterprise 77. 9. Estimation of the labour costs for a small scale hen egg laying enterprise 78. 10. Estimation of the fixed costs for a hen egg laying enterprise 80. 11. Estimation of the gross margin and enterprise profit for hen egg laying enterprise 81.
9 12. Cost structure of the hen laying enterprise 82. 13. Estimation of the cost and profit per egg of the different people in an egg chain . 83. 14. Example of a preliminary risk analysis table for risk of foot and mouth disease (FMD) in Northern Viet Nam 110. Figures 1. Cyclical disease management xii 2. Linking value chain analysis with epidemiology and risk analysis in disease control planning and management 4. 3. A schematic value chain 7. 4. Generic framework for livestock value chain 10. vi 5. Generic meat chicken value chain framework 11. 6. The four components of risk analysis 16. 7. Different ways of assessing the importance of different branches of a livestock value chain or a system.
10 29. 8. An example of a diagram of a risk pathway to address the risk of an outbreak of classical swine fever (CSF) in a pig farm as a result of feeding waste food 40. 9. Example of using a risk pathway diagram to graphically explore the risk factors in order to identify areas where risk reduction measures might be applied risk of transmitting H5N1 HPAI. through a hatchery 43. 10. Pathway for a simple import risk assessment 63. 11. Risk pathway for inter-farm transmission of an infectious poultry disease ( H5N1 HPAI) 64. 12. Qualitative risk assessment scheme used by Defra in the UK. (Defra, 2002) 69. Boxes 1.