1 ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS used IN MEDICINE Assoc. Prof. Warwick Carter , FRACGP, FAMA ABBREVIATIONS , ACRONYMS , symbols and postnominals that may be encountered in medical books, magazines, letters, research articles and advertisements, or patient records, prescriptions and reports. The interpretation of an abbreviation may vary in different contexts. The use of medical ACRONYMS and ABBREVIATIONS should be discouraged. PREFACE ABBREVIATIONS and ACRONYMS seem to be multiplying exponentially in modern medicine. Some are just a passing fad, or have only local significance; others, though, become widely used and recognised. Unfortunately, remembering the details about the alphabet soup that may appear in medical records or reports has become an impossible task for the busy clinician. This book is aimed to assist doctors, medical students, nurses and others involved in reading medical notes and reports in interpreting the ABBREVIATIONS and ACRONYMS used by others.
2 It is NOT designed to encourage their use in any way. The use of ABBREVIATIONS and ACRONYMS in medical records and reports may lead to errors in patient care as they may be misunderstood or misinterpreted. When ACRONYMS and ABBREVIATIONS are used , they should always be defined within the records, report etc. in which they appear, thus: Mr. Jones has suffered a cerebrovascular accident (CVA). His CVA has left him with a left hemiplegia. Not every abbreviation and acronym used in every clinical and geographical area of medicine can possibly be described in a book of this size, but it should include the majority of those encountered by most physicians. I trust that you will find this book useful in your practice. Warwick Carter Brisbane 2009 SYMBOLS diagnosis / change psychiatry / psychiatrist sum / syphilis # fracture / number death birth NUMBERS 15/60 fifteen minutes 3/24 three hours 5/7 five days 30/40 thirty weeks pregnant 10/52 ten weeks 4/12 four months 5 HIAA 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid 7vPCV seven valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine 14C Carbon-14 23vPPV 23 valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine A A Aedes / argon / artery / Ancyclostoma / Ascaris A2 angiotensin 2 / aortic second sound A2RB angiotensin 2 receptor blocker A&E accident and emergency A&O alert and orientated A1AT alpha-1-antitrypsin AA Alcoholics Anonymous / amino acid / affected area aa equal quantities of each ingredient AAA abdominal aortic aneurysm AAAGP Australian Association of Academic General Practitioners AAD antibiotic associated diarrhoea AAGP Australian Association of General Practitioners AAL
3 Anterior axillary line AAO alert awake oriented AAPM Australian Association of Practice Managers AAT alpha1-antitrypsin AAV adenovirus-associated virus AB abortion / abnormal Ab antibody ABD abdomen ABG arterial blood gas ABN abnormal ABVD adriamycin, bleomycin, vinblatine and dacarbazine AC acromioclavicular / acute / anterior chamber (eye) ac ante cibum (before food) / acetyl Ac actinium ACE angiotensin converting enzyme ACER Australian Council for Educational Research ACh acetylcholine AChE acetylcholinesterase ACL anterior cruciate ligament ACLE acute cutaneous lupus erythematosus ACP acid phosphatase; acetyl carrier protein ACRRM Australian College of Rural and Remote Medicine ACS acute coronary syndrome / American College of Surgeons ACTH adrenocorticotrophic hormone AD Alzheimer disease / auris dextra (right ear) ad lib ad libitum (at freedom, as desired) ADD attention deficit disorder ADEC Australian Drug Evaluation Commission ADGP Australian Divisions of General Practice ADH antidiuretic hormone ADHD attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ADIS Australasian Drug Information Service ADL activities of daily living ad lib as much as is necessary / liberally ADM admission / admitted ADP adenosine diphosphate ADR adverse drug reaction ADT adult diphtheria and tetanus (vaccine)
4 / any damn thing AE above elbow AED anti-epilepsy drug AF atrial fibrillation AFB acid fast bacillus AFP alpha-fetoprotein / Australian Family Physician AG antigen Ag silver A/G albumin-globulin ratio AGES Australian Gynaecological Endoscopic Society AGPAL Australian General Practice Accreditation Limited A-GR albumin-globulin ratio AH after hours / Accuhaler / antihistamine / Allen & Hanburys AHD advance health directive / after hours doctor AHF anti-haemolytic factor AHIA Australian Health Insurance Association AI aortic incompetence / artificial intelligence AID artificial insemination by donor AIDS acquired immune deficiency disorder AIH artificial insemination by husband AIIRA angiotensin two reuptake inhibitors AJ ankle jerk AK above knee AKA above knee amputation / alcoholic ketoacidosis Al aluminium alb albumin alc alcohol alkaline phosphatase ALL acute lymphatic leukaemia ALP alkaline phosphatase ALT alanine amino transferase alt.
5 Alternate / alternative AMA Australian Medical Association / American Medical Association / antimitochondrial antibody / against medical advice amb ambulatory AMC Australian Medical Council AMD age-related macular degeneration AMI anterior myocardial infarct AML acute myeloid leukaemia amn amniocentesis / amniotic fluid AMO attending medical officer AMP adenosine monophosphate amp ampoule / amputation ANA antinuclear antibody ANCA anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies ANF antinuclear autoantibodies, fluorescent / antinuclear factor ANS autonomic nervous system ant anterior Ant-AChR anti-acetylcholine receptor antibody ante before AntiXa anti-factor Xa ANZFA Australian and New Zealand Food Authority AO alert and orientated AOB alcohol on breath AON area of need AP anteroposterior / abdomino-perineal / antepartum APA Australian Physiotherapy Association APC activated protein C APH ante-partum haemorrhage APPT activated partial prothrombin time APTT activated partial thromboplastin time aq aqua (water)
6 APR abdomino-perineal resection Ar argon ARB angiotensin receptor blocker ARC AIDS related complex ARD acute respiratory distress ARDGP Australian Rural Divisions of General Practice ARDS acute/adult respiratory distress syndrome ARF acute renal failure / acute respiratory failure ARM artificial rupture of membranes AROM artificial rupture of membranes ART assisted reproductive technologies / artery AS aortic stenosis; auris sinistra (left ear) As arsenic ASA acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) ASAP as soon as possible ASD atrial septal defect ASOT antistreptolysin O titre AST aspartate aminotransferase At astatine AT III antithrombin III ATFL anterior tibio-fibula ligament ATP adenosine triphosphate ATSI Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Au gold aud auditory AV atrioventricular / arteriovenous AVF arteriovenous fistula AVN atrioventricular node AW atomic weight Ax anxiety / axilla AXR abdominal x-ray AZT azidothymidine B B Bacillus / bath / blood / boron B2M beta-2 Microglobulin BA Bachelor of Arts Ba barium BAL British Anti-Lewesite BAppSc Bachelor of Applied Science BBB blood-brain barrier / bundle branch block BCC basal cell carcinoma BCG Bacille Calmette-Gu rin (TB) BCh Bachelor of Surgery BChir Bachelor of Surgery (UK) bd bis die (twice a day)
7 BDSc Bachelor of Dental Surgery BE barium enema / below elbow Be beryllium Beta HCG beta human chorionic gonadotrophin BHA Bachelor of Health Administration Bi bismuth bid bis in die (twice in a day) BIH bilateral inguinal hernias bil bilirubin BK below knee BKA below knee amputation BM Bachelor of Medicine / bowel movement / bone marrow BMA British Medical Association BMD bone mineral density BMedSc Bachelor of Medical Science BMI body mass index BMJ British Medical Journal BMR basal metabolic rate BMT bone marrow transplant BNF British National Formulary BNO bowels not opened BNS Blue Nursing Service BOccThy Bachelor of Occupational Therapy BOM bilateral otitis media BOO bladder outlet obstruction BOZ bismuth oxide and zinc cream BP blood pressure / British Pharmacopoeia BPH benign prostatic hypertrophy BPhty Bachelor of Physiotherapy BPM beats per minute BPO benzyl peroxide BPP Better Practice Program / brand price premium Br breech (pregnancy)
8 / Brucella / bromine BR bed rest BS Bachelor of Surgery / bowel sounds / breath sounds / blood sugar BSA body surface area BSL blood sugar level BSP bromsulfophthalein BSpThy Bachelor of Speech Therapy BT bleeding time BTU British thermal unit BTZ butazolidin BUN blood urea nitrogen BW birth weight / body weight / bi-weekly Bx biopsy Bz benzoyl C C carbon / calorie / capsule / Celcius / cephalic (pregnancy) / cervical / cervix / Clostridium / complement c. cum (with) C1-7 cervical vertebrae one to seven C&S culture and sensitivity c/o care of / complains of c/s cycles per second / culture and sensitivity Ca calcium CA carbohydrate (cancer) antigen / cancer / cardiac arrest / community acquired ca. circa (approximately) CABG coronary artery bypass graft CACP coreoathetoid cerebral palsy CACS coronary artery calcification score CAD coronary artery disease CAI carbonic anhydrase inhibitors cal calorie CAM complementary and alternate medicine cAMP cyclic adenosine monophosphate cap capsule CAPD continual ambulatory peritoneal dialysis CASA cancer associated serum antigen CAT computerised axial tomography cath catheter CB caesarean birth CBC complete blood count CBG capillary blood gas CBT cognitive behaviour therapy CC chief complaint cc cubic centimetre CCA calcium channel antagonist CCB calcium channel blocker CCF congestive cardiac failure CCP cyclic citrulinated peptide CCU coronary care unit / catch clean urine CD cardiac disease / contagious disease Cd cadmium CDC Centre for Disease Control (USA)
9 CDT child diphtheria and tetanus vaccine CE continuing education CEA carcinoembryonic antigen CEO chief executive officer ceph cephalic (pregnancy) CF cardiac failure / complement fixation / cystic fibrosis CFC chlorofluorocarbon CFP Certificate in Family Planning. CFS chronic fatigue syndrome CFT complement fixation test CG chorionic gonadotrophin CHA Certificate of Health Administration. ChB Bachelor of Surgery (British University) CHD congenital heart disease / coronary heart disease CHF congestive heart failure / chronic heart failure CHO carbohydrate chol cholesterol chr chronic CI cardiac index / cardiac insufficiency / colour index CJD Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease CK creatine kinase CKD chronic kidney disease Cl chloride / chlorine / Clostridium CLE cutaneous lupus erythematosus CLL chronic lymphatic leukaemia CLO Campylobacter like organism cm centimetre CMA Canadian Medical Association / certified medical assistant (USA) CMCJ carpo-metacarpal joint CME continuing medical education CMI consumer medical information CML chromic myeloid leukaemia CMV cytomegalovirus CN cranial nerve(s) CNS central nervous system CO carbon monoxide / cardiac output / complains of Co cobalt CO2 carbon dioxide CoA coenzyme A COAD chronic obstructive airways disease COC combined oral contraceptive Comm.
10 Comment Comp. compound / compensation COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease cor coronary COX cyclooxygenase CP cerebral palsy / chest pain CPAP continuous positive airways pressure CPD cephalopelvic disproportion / continuing professional development CPH Certificate in Public Health. CPK creatine phospho kinase CPR cardio-pulmonary resuscitation cps cycles per second CR controlled release / computed radiography Cr creatinine / chromium CRF chronic renal failure CRP cross reactive protein CS caesarean section Cs caesium CSF cerebrospinal fluid CSIRO Commonwealth Scientific Institute and Research Organisation CSL Commonwealth Serum Laboratories CT computerised tomography / coronary thrombosis / cerebral tumour CTG cardiotocograph CTR cardio-thoracic ratio / carpal tunnel repair CTS carpal tunnel syndrome Cu copper cu cubic CV cardiovascular / curriculum vitae CVA cerebrovascular accident / costovertebral angle CVD cardiovascular disease CVL central venous line CVP central venous pressure CVS cardiovascular system /chorionic villus sampling Cx cervix / culture / cancel CXR chest x-ray CYP cytochrome P-450 D D daughter / decreased / dioptre / dorsal d day D5W dextrose 5% in water