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Adverbial Clauses In a complex sentence Adverbial Clauses perform the same function as an Adverbial adjunct in a simple sentence: You may go out /where you want. Adverbial Clauses are connected with the main clause by means of subordinators some of these have one meaning only, so that we can immediately classify the clause as belonging to a certain type of Adverbial clause. They are not normally connected with the main clause by a zero marker (asyndetically). Adverbial Clauses of Time Finite Clauses of Time Express the time or duration of the action and answer such questions as when, how long, since when. The two actions may be simultaneous, one may follow or precede the other, it may last until the other has begun, etc.: He whistled while he washed the car. When he finished he went for a drive. The most common subordinators introducing Clauses of time are: when, whenever, while, as, as soon as, as long as, till, until, since, after, before, , no than When Expresses that the action of the main clause and that of the subordinate clause are either: simultaneous: When the cat is away, the mice will play.

Adverbial Clauses In a complex sentence adverbial clauses perform the same function as an adverbial adjunct in a simple sentence: You may go out /where you want.

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### Transcription of Adverbial Clauses - germanistika.NET

1 Adverbial Clauses In a complex sentence Adverbial Clauses perform the same function as an Adverbial adjunct in a simple sentence: You may go out /where you want. Adverbial Clauses are connected with the main clause by means of subordinators some of these have one meaning only, so that we can immediately classify the clause as belonging to a certain type of Adverbial clause. They are not normally connected with the main clause by a zero marker (asyndetically). Adverbial Clauses of Time Finite Clauses of Time Express the time or duration of the action and answer such questions as when, how long, since when. The two actions may be simultaneous, one may follow or precede the other, it may last until the other has begun, etc.: He whistled while he washed the car. When he finished he went for a drive. The most common subordinators introducing Clauses of time are: when, whenever, while, as, as soon as, as long as, till, until, since, after, before, , no than When Expresses that the action of the main clause and that of the subordinate clause are either: simultaneous: When the cat is away, the mice will play.

2 Follow each other: I'll ring you up when I come home. When is sometimes homonymous: the adversative coordinating conjunction when introducing an adversative co-ordinate clause denoting an action that is in opposition (contras) to that of the main clause: How on earth can you expect to pass your exam when (ko pa) you sleep until ten every day? the co-ordinating conjunction when (and then) introducing a copulative co-ordinate clause: I turned off the light when (and then) the baby began to cry. the connective adverb when introducing nominal Clauses : When the murder had been committed (S) has not been established yet. The first thing to discover is when the victim was last seen (SC). A clause of time introduced by the conjunction when may function as a postmodifier in a nominal phras when the headword is a noun denoting time: the instant, the moment, the There are moments when he feels miserable.

3 When and that may be deleted, whereby the nouns themselves assume the function of conjunctions introducing Adverbial Clauses of time: The moment the secretary opened the parcel, the bomb exploded in her hands. He was born the year the war started. Some adverbs of time directly, immediately, instantly may function as conjunctions when when is dropped: He ran to the hospital immediately / directly /instantly he heard about his wife's accident. Whenever has a generalizing meaning: Whenever we meet we stop to have a chat. While denotes a continuous activity the action is: simultaneous: While she was waiting for the train, she read a magazine. already in progress before the action in the main clause: While I was mowing the lawn he came up to me. While and when are often synonymous: While / When she was resting upstairs, the burglar broke into the basement. Subordinating conjunction while introducting a clause of time is homonymous with: the co-ordinating conjunction while expressing contrast John is a small sickly child while his sister has grown a tall, strong girl.

4 (while is always in the second clause). the subordinating conjunction while (though) expressing concession: While (though) we agree with most of what he says, we cannot stand his manners. As (medtem ko). As normally introduces a clause in which the action is in progress refers to past action only and denotes: simultaneity: His eyes glittered as he looked at his new car. gradual development: As night came on, the wind calmed down. action of the main clause immediately follows that of the subordinate clause: Just as he neared the corner, a little girl jumped directly in front of the car. As soon as (br ko). denotes that the actions in the subordinate and in the main clause closely follow each other: As soon as we received your telegram, we prepared the goods for shipment. Simultaneous with (inversion!): no sooner than: No sooner was the pickpocket set free than he stole the purse from an old lady's handbag.

5 Hardly when: Hardly had the book appeared when it was sold out. As long as (dokler). I'll never eat oysters as long as I live. Till, Untill (dokler ne). denotes the concluding moment of the action expressed in the main clause; until is usually preferred when the subordinate clause precedes the main clause: He stood thunderstruck till the danger was past. Until she learns to behave we won't invite her to our parties. Since (odkar). denotes a point of time to which the action in the main clause is subsequent: He has been living with the sam landlady since he entered the university. After (potem ko). indicates that the action of the subordinate clause precedes that of the main clause: She went to England after she graduated. We arrived at the theatre after the play had started. Before (preden). shows that the action expressed by the main clause precedes that of the subordinate clause: He always reads an hour or so before he falls asleep.

6 Do it before it is too late. Non-finite Clauses of Time Gerundial Clauses of time are introduced by the subordinator on and in. On emphasizes the idea of an immediate succession: On arriving at the cottage, Tom found it burnt down. In followed by the gerund, forms a temporal frame for the action expressed in the main clause: He was mistaken in thinking she was single. Participial Clauses of time: -ing participial Clauses of time indicate an activity which is more or less simultaneous Whistling to himself, the office-boy went out. Entering the room, he noticed that the windows were open. (present participle expresses the anterior of two consecutive actions). On (upon) arriving at the station . perfect participle denotes the action that took place appreciably earlier: Having travelled around Africa for nearly three years, he wrote a book about the social conditions in that part of the world.

7 After travelling around Africa for nearly three years, he wrote a book about the (more common). participial Clauses of time introduced by when or while if the action expressed in the non-finite clause is simultaneous with the action expressed by the finite verb of the main clause o When going to his office, he met his friend. While driving home, he had an accident. past participial Clauses of time o related participial structures Arrived at the spot, we lost no time in getting to work. o absolute participial structures The letter finished, I took it to the post-office to have it registered. Adverbial Clauses of Place indicate the place of the action and answer the question where; they are introduced by where, wherever, anywhere. Adverbial Clauses of place introduced by where denote: the place of the action: I found the bag where I had left it. the direction of the action: He went where the doctor sent him.

8 Where introducing an Adverbial clause is homonymous with the subordinator where introducing subject, object, predicate and adjectival Clauses if where can be replaced with there it is surely Adverbial : Stay where you are. Stay there Where he lives is unknown. - *There he lives is unknown. Wherever, everywhere are used in generalizing sense: Wherever he went he was welcome. Adverbial Clauses of place may function as object to a preposition: I could see him very well from where I stood. Adverbial Clauses of Reason Finite Clauses of Cause or Reason indicate why an action was done and answer the question why; while the subordinate clause denotes causer or reason, the main clause expresses result. Subordinators: because, as, since, seeing that, that, now that, on the grounds that, for the reason that, in that Because is the most common conjunction introducing a clause of cause or reason: The pilot had to descend because he was short of fuel.

9 Because the student was 20 minutes late, he didn't dare to enter the lecture theatre. Because is the only causal conjunction that can be used: in answers to questions beginning with why: Why did they call of the garden party? Because it was raining. in cleft sentences after the emphatic it is, it was It is because you got up so late that you missed the bus. As, since the emphasis is not so much on the reason as on the result expressed in the main clause: As it was raining, we stayed indoors all day. Since the girl was very shy too, the young couple sat in silence. Seeing that Seeing that his wife was not well, he postponed his journey. That the preceding main clause is a rhetorical question Are you a millionaire that you spend your money so lavishly? Now that Now that you are well again you will have to make up for lost time. On the grounds that He resigned from his job on the grounds that he was in poor health.

10 For the simple reason that We couldn't go to the concert for the simple reason that we hadn't got tickets. In that He is like his father in that he is fond of sailing. Some other Ways of expressing cause or reason 1. that- Clauses functioning as postmodifier to predicate adjectives denoting emotion I am glad (that) you have changed your mind. 2. subordinate clause introduced by as, postmodifying a predicate adjective or an adverb. Busy as he was she hardly listened to him. 3. phrasal prepositions function as conjunctions when followed by the fact that . Owing to the fact that . Non-finite Clauses of Cause and Reason 1. Gerundial Clauses : Owing to his careless driving he has had many accidents. He was fined for driving too quickly through the village. 2. Participial Clauses (in initial, medial or final position): Knowing that he couldn't go to his daughter, he tried to telephone her.