1 TABLE 1. 2015 American Geriatrics Society BEERS Criteria for Potentially Inappropriate Medication Use in Older Adults From THE AMERICAN GERIATRICS SOCIETY Organ System, Therapeutic Recommendation, Rationale, Quality of Evidence A POCKET GUIDE TO THE Category, Drug(s). Anticholinergics (QE), Strength of Recommendation (SR). AGS 2015 BEERS CRITERIA First-generation antihistamines: Brompheniramine Carbinoxamine Avoid Highly anticholinergic; clearance reduced with advanced age, and tolerance develops when used as hypnotic; risk of confusion, dry mouth, constipation, and other anticholinergic effects or This guide has been developed as a tool to assist healthcare providers in improving Chlorpheniramine toxicity medication safety in older adults.
2 The role of this guide is to inform clinical decision- Clemastine Use of diphenhydramine in situations such as acute treatment of making, research, training, quality measures and regulations concerning the prescribing of Cyproheptadine severe allergic reaction may be appropriate medications for older adults to improve safety and quality of care. It is based on The AGS Dexbrompheniramine Dexchlorpheniramine QE = Moderate; SR = Strong 2015 Updated BEERS Criteria for Potentially Inappropriate Medication Use in Older Adults. Dimenhydrinate Originally conceived of in 1991 by the late Mark BEERS , MD, a geriatrician, the BEERS Diphenhydramine (oral). Criteria catalogues medications that cause side effects in the elderly due to the Doxylamine physiologic changes of aging.
3 In 2011, the AGS sponsored its rst update of the criteria, Hydroxyzine Meclizine assembling a team of experts and using an enhanced, evidence-based methodology. In Promethazine 2015, the AGS again funded the development of the Updated Criteria using an evidence- Triprolidine based methodology and rating each Criterion (quality of evidence and strength of Antiparkinsonian agents Avoid evidence) using the American College of Physicians' Guideline Grading System, which is Benztropine (oral) Not recommended for prevention of extrapyramidal symptoms based on the GRADE scheme developed by Guyatt et al. Trihexyphenidyl with antipsychotics; more-effective agents available for The full document, along with accompanying resources can be viewed in their entirety treatment of Parkinson disease online at QE = Moderate; SR = Strong INTENDED USE Antispasmodics: Avoid Atropine (excludes Highly anticholinergic, uncertain effectiveness The goal of this guide is to improve care of older adults by reducing their exposure to ophthalmic).
4 Potentially Inappropriate Medications (PIMS). QE = Moderate; SR = Strong Belladonna alkaloids Clidinium- This should be viewed as a guideline for identifying medications for which the risks Chlordiazepoxide of their use in older adults outweigh the bene ts. Dicyclomine These criteria are not meant to be applied in a punitive manner. Hyoscyamine This list is not meant to supersede clinical judgment or an individual patient's values Propantheline and needs. Prescribing and managing disease conditions should be individualized Scopolamine and involve shared decision-making. Antithrombotics These criteria also underscore the importance of using a team approach to Dipyridamole, oral Avoid prescribing and the use of non-pharmacological approaches and of having short-acting (does not May cause orthostatic hypotension; more effective alternatives economic and organizational incentives for this type of model.)
5 Apply to the extended- available; IV form acceptable for use in cardiac stress testing Two companion pieces were developed for the 2015 update. The rst addresses release combination QE = Moderate; SR = Strong the best way for patients, providers, and health systems to use (and not use) the with aspirin). 2015 AGS BEERS Criteria. The second is a list of alternative medications included Ticlopidine Avoid in the current use of High-Risk Medications in the Elderly and Potentially Harmful Drug-Disease Interactions in the Elderly quality measures. Both pieces can be found Safer, effective alternatives available on QE = Moderate; SR = Strong The criteria are not applicable in all circumstances ( patient's receiving palliative and hospice care).
6 If a provider is not able to nd an alternative and chooses to continue to CNS=central nervous system; NSAIDs=nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; SIADH, syndrome of use a drug on this list in an individual patient, designation of the medication as potentially inappropriate antidiuretic hormone. inappropriate can serve as a reminder for close monitoring so that adverse drug effects can be incorporated into the electronic health record and prevented or detected early. AGS THE AMERICAN GERIATRICS SOCIETY. Geriatrics Health Professionals.. Leading change. Improving care for older adults. PAGE 1 PAGE 2 Table 1 (continued on page 3). Table 1 Continued Table 1 Continued Organ System, Therapeutic Organ System, Therapeutic Category, Drug(s) Recommendation, Rationale, QE, SR Category, Drug(s) Recommendation, Rationale, QE, SR.
7 Anti-infective Nifedipine, immediate Avoid Nitrofurantoin Avoid in individuals with creatinine clearance <30 mL/min or release Potential for hypotension; risk of precipitating myocardial for long-term suppression of bacteria ischemia Potential for pulmonary toxicity, hepatoxicity, and peripheral QE = High; SR = Strong neuropathy, especially with long-term use; safer alternatives available QE = Low; SR = Strong Amiodarone Avoid amiodarone as first-line therapy for atrial fibrillation unless the patient has heart failure or substantial left ventricular Cardiovascular hypertrophy Peripheral alpha-1 Avoid use as an antihypertensive Amiodarone is effective for maintaining sinus rhythm but has blockers High risk of orthostatic hypotension; not recommended as greater toxicities than other antiarrhythmics used in atrial Doxazosin routine treatment for hypertension; alternative agents have brillation.
8 It may be reasonable rst-line therapy in patients Prazosin superior risk/bene t pro le with concomitant heart failure or substantial left ventricular Terazosin hypertrophy if rhythm control is preferred over rate control QE = Moderate; SR = Strong QE = High; SR = Strong Central alpha agonists Avoid clonidine as first-line antihypertensive. Avoid others as Clonidine listed Central nervous system Guanabenz High risk of adverse CNS effects; may cause bradycardia and Guanfacine Antidepressants, alone or Avoid orthostatic hypotension; not recommended as routine treatment in combination Methyldopa for hypertension Highly anticholinergic, sedating, and cause orthostatic Amitriptyline hypotension; safety pro le of low-dose doxepin ( 6 mg/d).
9 Reserpine (> mg/d). QE = Low; SR = Strong Amoxapine comparable with that of placebo Clomipramine Disopyramide Avoid QE = High; SR = Strong Desipramine Disopyramide is a potent negative inotrope and therefore may Doxepin >6 mg/d induce heart failure in older adults; strongly anticholinergic; Imipramine other antiarrhythmic drugs preferred Nortriptyline QE = Low; SR = Strong Paroxetine Protriptyline Dronedarone Avoid in individuals with permanent atrial fibrillation or severe Trimipramine or recently decompensated heart failure Antipsychotics, rst- Avoid, except for schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or short-term Worse outcomes have been reported in patients taking (conventional) and use as antiemetic during chemotherapy dronedarone who have permanent atrial brillation or severe or second- (atypical) Increased risk of cerebrovascular accident (stroke) and greater recently decompensated heart failure generation rate of cognitive decline and mortality in persons with dementia QE = High; SR = Strong Avoid antipsychotics for behavioral problems of dementia and/.
10 Or delirium unless nonpharmacological options ( , behavioral Digoxin Avoid as first-line therapy for atrial fibrillation. Avoid as first- interventions) have failed or are not possible and the older adult line therapy for heart failure. If used for atrial fibrillation or is threatening substantial harm to self or others heart failure, avoid dosages > mg/d QE = Moderate; SR = Strong Use in atrial brillation: should not be used as a rst-line agent in atrial brillation, because more-effective alternatives exist and it may be associated with increased mortality Barbiturates Avoid Use in heart failure: questionable effects on risk of hospitalization Amobarbital High rate of physical dependence, tolerance to sleep bene ts, and may be associated with increased mortality in older adults Butabarbital greater risk of overdose at low dosages with heart failure; in heart failure, higher dosages not associated Butalbital QE = High.