1 ANTI-CORRUPTION EDUCATION AT SCHOOL . Methodical material for general and higher EDUCATION schools ANTI-CORRUPTION . EDUCATION . AT SCHOOL . Methodical material for general and higher EDUCATION schools MODE R N DI DAC T ICS CENTRE. 2006. UDK An-143. Sponsors: Open Society Royal Danish Foundation for United Nations Government Fund- Embassy in Educational Development of the Republic Lithuania Lithuania Change Programme of Lithuania Partners: Special Ministry Transparency Investigation of EDUCATION International Service of and Science Lithuanian the Republic of the Republic Chapter of Lithuania of Lithuania Cover design by Alvydas Ladyga Designed by Rokas Gela ius Cover illustration by Odeta Petravi i t . Translated and edited by Metropolio vertimai, Ulon St. 5, LT-08240 Vilnius Published by Garnelis Publishing, Klaip dos St. 6, LT-01117 Vilnius Printed by Standart spaustuv , S.
2 Dariaus ir S. Gir no St. 39, LT-02189 Vilnius ISBN 9955-428-76-7. Ministry of EDUCATION and Science of the Republic of Lithuania, 2006. Modern Didactics Centre, 2006. CONTENTS. PREFACE 7. ANTI-CORRUPTION Studies in General EDUCATION Schools INTRODUCTION 11. corruption IN A NUTSHELL 13. What is corruption ? 13. Forms of corruption 14. Arguments for' and against' corruption 15. What causes corruption ? 16. ANTI-CORRUPTION strategies 17. POSSIBLE OPTIONS OF ANTI-CORRUPTION EDUCATION AT SCHOOL 18. KEY CONCEPTS USED IN ANTI-CORRUPTION EDUCATION 20. CONTENT OF ANTI-CORRUPTION EDUCATION AT SCHOOL 24. Narrow and wide (contextual) views 24. Key topics of ANTI-CORRUPTION EDUCATION 24. Integrated Programme of ANTI-CORRUPTION EDUCATION 25. Example of an Integrated Programme 26. DIDACTIC ADVICE ON ANTI-CORRUPTION EDUCATION AT SCHOOL 29. Provision of information 29.
3 Development of attitudes 29. Attitude change 31. Moral and conventional perspectives 31. Development of an individual ANTI-CORRUPTION programme 34. EXAMPLES OF HOW THE ANTI-CORRUPTION EDUCATION PROGRAMME. CAN BE IMPLEMENTED INT0 VARIOUS DISCIPLINES AT SCHOOL 37. History 37. Civic EDUCATION , political science 53. Ethics, psychology, religion 74. APPENDICES 101. Getting Prepared for Critical Thinking training 101. The Phenomenon of corruption in Lithuania and the World 105. Codes of Ethics/Conduct 109. BIBLIOGRAPHY AND OTHER SOURCES 161. corruption Studies in Higher EDUCATION Schools FOREWORD 165. corruption Phenomenon 167. Jolanta Piliponyt . Taxonomy of corruption in Higher EDUCATION 189. Natalija Rumianceva corruption in Higher EDUCATION Schools of Lithuania: 199. Views, Problems and Possible Solutions Tadas Tamo i nas INTEGRATION OF ANTI-CORRUPTION EDUCATION .
4 INTO HIGHER EDUCATION STUDIES. corruption in Terms of Sociology of Deviation 205. Course Module of Sociology of Deviation Ar nas Povili nas corruption as a Form of Deviation 220. A Course Module on Social Organisation Tadas Tamo i nas corruption as a Subject of Law 223. Commercial Law Course Module Vitalija Sk ruvien . corruption and Law 253. Fundamentals of Law Module Gintar atien . Aspects of Business Ethics 266. Business (Commercial) Law Course Module Gintar atien . Private Interests and Representation 269. The Course Module of Life-Long Learning Strategies Vaiva Zuzavi i t . Solution of corruption as a Moral Issue in a Code of Ethics 275. A Lecture of Professional Ethics Course Romas Prakapas Optional Course Modules corruption and its Prevention 279. Tadas Tamo i nas corruption and ANTI-CORRUPTION Policy 289. Gintar atien . Glossary of Key Terms 309.
5 Bibliography and Other Sources 311. 7. PREFACE. This book consists of two parts which include methodological publications for teachers of general EDUCATION schools and lecturers of higher EDUCATION schools. They were written and published in Lithuanian in 2005. The rst part, ANTI-CORRUPTION Studies in General EDUCATION Schools, is meant for teachers willing and able to integrate ANTI-CORRUPTION EDUCATION into the programme of the disciplines they teach. The most appropriate disciplines in that respect are history, civic EDUCATION , ethics and religion. ANTI-CORRUPTION EDUCATION can be also included into literature and language teaching lessons. The rst part of the book provides rec- ommendations to teachers explaining to them how they can integrate ANTI-CORRUPTION EDUCATION into the disciplines they teach without requiring additional hours for educa- tion and using the existing programmes, manuals and methodological tools.
6 The second part, corruption Studies in Higher EDUCATION Schools: Views, Problems and Possible Solutions, is meant for lecturers of higher EDUCATION schools and universi- ties when study programmes or topics of disciplines are favourable to accommodate spread of information about corruption and ANTI-CORRUPTION EDUCATION , form anti -cor- ruption attitudes and values of a civically active and society-minded person. This part provides examples of how ANTI-CORRUPTION EDUCATION can be integrated into certain study modules and programmes and how a separate course of ANTI-CORRUPTION educa- tion can be developed. In addition, this book provides theoretical material which will help understand the matters discussed and the key concepts used. It also contains ndings of social surveys and some additional sources and references. The book was developed by teachers practitioners.
7 All the examples presented were tested with pupils and students. The inspiration to translate the book came from great interest of our foreign part- ners and colleagues in ANTI-CORRUPTION EDUCATION and Lithuania's experience in that area. The compilers of the book would like to thank the sponsors: United Nations Development Programme in Lithuania, the Special Investigation Service of the Republic of Lithuania, Open Society Institute RE:FINE programme and everybody who has contributed to the development and publication of the book. We hope that teachers of other countries will nd new ideas and useful examples in this book which they could use in their practice and further ANTI-CORRUPTION EDUCATION in their respective countries. D A I VA P E N K A U S K I E N . ANTI-CORRUPTION Studies in General EDUCATION Schools Methodological material This methodological material was developed using the works provided by the projects EDUCATION against corruption (2002-2003) and Improvement and Dissemination of ANTI-CORRUPTION EDUCATION Programmes (2004).
8 Consultants: Arne Nielsen, PLS Ramb ll Management, Denmark Evaldas Bakonis, EDUCATION Development Centre Dr. Vaiva Vaicekauskien , EDUCATION Development Centre Art ras Paliu is, Special Investigation Service of the Republic of Lithuania Aida Martink nien , Special Investigation Service of the Republic of Lithuania Ramun Pauk tien , Special Investigation Service of the Republic of Lithuania The methodological material was compiled by: Evaldas Bakonis, EDUCATION Development Centre Dr. Vaiva Vaicekauskien , EDUCATION Development Centre Daiva Penkauskien , Modern Didactics Centre 11. INTRODUCTION. Why was this methodological material created? This methodological material was created on the basis of the projects EDUCATION against corruption and Improvement and Dissemination of ANTI-CORRUPTION EDUCATION Programmes . The projects were carried out within the framework of the National ANTI-CORRUPTION Programme, which is to be implemented over the period of 2002-2006.
9 The Seimas of the Republic of Lithuania tasked the Government to orga- nise, in conjunction with the Special Investigation Service, the implementation of the measures provided for in the National ANTI-CORRUPTION Programme. The stakeholders of the EDUCATION programme include most of the Ministries of Republic of Lithuania, the Lithuanian Crime Prevention Centre, and Phare experts. The main purpose of this programme is public EDUCATION and dissemination of information about anti -corrup- tion activities and corruption prevention. corruption is seen as a more urgent problem in post-communist countries than Western states. The communist systems were based on corruption as a consolidat- ing force where kleptocracy and clientelism had become the norm. Such behavioural and thinking patterns obstructed creation of democratic states and private economy based on open competition.
10 To tackle the sophisticated and speci c nature crimes of corruption in Lithuania, a special agency was set up in autumn of 1997, the Special Investigation Service (STT). The National ANTI-CORRUPTION Programme (hereinafter referred to as the NACP). adopted by the Seimas had a wider objective than just detection of crimes of corrup- tion. A major emphasis is placed on corruption prevention and public EDUCATION . The NACP provides for one of the key tasks, which reads as follows: By various means promoting intolerance to the manifestation of corruption ; in view of this, establishing close co-operation with non-governmental organisations and mass media, developing and incorporating ANTI-CORRUPTION programmes into the EDUCATION system. The Action Plan of the NACP provides for the development and implementation of methodological recommendations for ANTI-CORRUPTION EDUCATION .