1 549 Brazilian Archives of Biology and , n. 4 : pp. 549-558, July 2005 ISSN 1516-8913 Printed in Braz ilBRAZILIAN ARCHIVES OFBIOLOGY AND TECHNOLOGYAN INTERNATIONAL JOURNALA ntimicrobial Effectiveness of Spices: an Approach for Usein Food Conservation SystemsEvandro Leite de Souza1*, T nia L cia Montenegro Stamford1, Edeltrudes de OliveiraLima2, Vin cius Nogueira Trajano2 and Jos Maria Barbosa Filho31 Programa de P s-gradua o em Nutri o; Departamento de Nutri o; Centro de Ci ncias da Sa de, UniversidadeFederal de Pernambuco. 2 Laborat rio de Micologia; Departamento de Ci ncias Farmac uticas; Centro deCi ncias da Sa de; Universidade Federal da Para ba. 3 Laborat rio de Tecnologia Farmac utica; Departamento deCi ncias Farmac uticas; Centro de Ci ncias da Sa de; Universidade Federal da Para ba; Rua Radialista Ant nioAssun o de Jesus, 680/102; Jardim Cidade Universit ria; 58052-230; Jo o Pessoa - PB - BrasilABSTRACTT here has been constant an increasing the search alternative and efficient compounds for food conservation, aiminga partial or total replacement of Antimicrobial chemical additives.
2 Spices offer a promising alternative for foodsafety. Inhibitory activity of spices and derivatives on the growth of bacteria, yeasts, fungi and microbial toxinssynthesis has been well reported, so they could be used in food conservation as main or as adjuvant antimicrobialcompounds in order to assure the production of microbiologically stable words: Spices, essential oil, extracts, chemical compounds, antibacterial activity, antifungal activityINTRODUCTIONFood conservation has been characterized fornutritious and microbiologically stable foods and ithas been archived by controlling the growth ofspoiling and pathogenic food-relatedmicroorganisms. Microbial control in foods couldbe assured by suppressing one or more essentialfactors for microbial survival (Horace, 1982).
3 Itcould be possible by adding suitable substances(weak organic acids, hydrogen peroxide, chelators,organic biomolecules) and applying physical(temperature, packaging) and/or chemicalprocedures (pH, oxide-reduction potential, osmoticpressure) (Ray, 1996; Brull and Coote, 1999).These procedures could kill or make unviablesome has been increasing concern of theconsumers about foods free or with lower level ofchemical preservatives because these could betoxic for humans (Bedin et al., 1999).Concomitantly, consumers have also demandedfor foods with long shelf-life and absence of riskof causing foodborne diseases. This perspectivehas put pressure on the food industry forprogressive removal of chemical preservatives andadoption of natural alternatives to obtain its goalsconcerning microbial safety.
4 This resulted inincreasing search for new technologies for use infood conservation systems, wich include: modifiedatmosphere packaging, combined effect ofunderlethal procedures, alternative antimicrobialcompounds (ecstatic or cidal effect), combinationof conventional (used in low levels) andalternatives antimicrobials (Brull and Coote,1999).Uncontrolled use of chemical antimicrobialpreservatives has been inducing factor forappearance of microbial strains more and moreresistant to classic Antimicrobial agents. DifficultSouza, E. L. et Archives of Biology and Technology550to control the microbial survival, showed byisolation of multi-resistant strains, has beenreported all over the world.
5 Fifty years ofincreasing use of chemicals antimicrobials havecreated a situation leading to an ecologicalimbalance and enrichment of multiples multi-resistant pathogenic microorganisms (Levy, 1997).The successful story of microbial chemocontrollies in the continuous search for new antimicrobialsubstances to control the challenge posed byresistant strains (Notermans and Hoogenboon-Verdegaal, 1992). Antibiotic resistance infoodborne pathogens is a reality, thoughsubstantial qualitative and quantitative differenceshave been observed (Teuber, 1999). Strains ofresistant foodborne pathogens to a variety ofantimicrobials have become a major healthconcern (Kiessling et al.)
6 , 2002) and it coulddecrease the successful application of controlmeasures on spoilage and pathogenmicroorganisms, many times leading for use ofless safe, ineffective or expensive alternatives(Levy, 1997).Changes in/on the Antimicrobial target,inactivation by enzymes, changes in cellularpermeability, Antimicrobial active efflux,overproduction of target enzymes and bypass ofthe Antimicrobial have been common mechanismsof Antimicrobial resistance (McKeegan et al.,2002). Brull and Coote (1999) have reportedmicrobial resistance for some antimicrobials usedin food conservation as weak-organic acids,hydrogen peroxide, chelators and some smallorganic , there has been increasing interest indiscovering new natural antimicrobials (Sagdi etal.
7 , 2003a), this is also has been true in foodmicrobiology. Plant products with antimicrobialproperties notably have obtained emphasis for apossible application in food production in order toprevent bacterial and fungal growth (Lanciotti etal., 2004). Plant products are characterized for awide range of volatile compounds, some of whichare important flavor quality factors (Utama et al.,2002). Moreover, plant volatiles have beengenerally recognized as safe (GRAS) (Newberneet al., 2000). Systematic screening for biologicalinteractions between microorganisms and plantproducts has been valuable source of new andeffective Antimicrobial substances, which couldhave different action ways on/in the microbial cellwhen compared to other conventionalantimicrobials.
8 Plants synthesize by a secondarymetabolism many compounds with complexmolecular structures and some of them have beenrelated with Antimicrobial properties found in plantand their derivatives. Among these secondarymetabolites are found alkaloids, flavonoids,isoflavonoids, tanins, cumarins, glycosides,terpens and phenolic compounds (Sim es et al.,1999).Being plant natural foodstuffs, spices appeal toconsumers who tend to question the safety ofsynthetic additives (Farag et al., 1989; Sagdi 2003b). Antimicrobial properties of spices havebeen documented in recent years and interestcontinues to the present (-El Shami et al., 1985;Akgul and Kivan , 1988; Cosentino et al., 1999;Domans and Deans, 2000; Ristori et al.)
9 , 2002;Radhakrishanan-Sridhar and Velusamy-Rajaopal,2003). Still little information is availableemphasizing the preservative and antimicrobialrole of spices in the prevention of foods of themicrobial action (Arora and Kaur, 1999).Spices are recognized to stabilize the foods frontthe microbial deterioration. This could be observedwhen spices show initially high microbial chargeand as time progresses, the microbial growthbecome progressively slower or it is eventuallytotally suppressed (Kizil and Sogut, 2003). Antimicrobial activity of spices depend on severalfactors, which includes: i) kind of spice, ii)composition and concentration of spice, iii)microbial specie and its occurrence level, iv)substrate composition and v) processing conditionsand storage (Shelef, 1983; Farag et al.
10 , 1989)Spices have been defined as plant substances fromindigenous or exotic origin, aromatic or withstrong taste, used to enhance the taste of foods(Germano and Germano, 1998). Spices includeleaves (bay, mint, rosemary, coriander, laurel,oregano), flowers (clove), bulbs (garlic, onion),fruits (cumin, red chilli, black pepper), stems(coriander, cinnamon), rhizomes (ginger) andother plant parts (Shelef, 1983). Although, spiceshave been well known for their medicinal,preservative and antioxidant properties, they havebeen currently used with primary purpose ofenhancing the flavor of foods rather thanextending shelf-life (Aktug and Karapinar 1986,Ristori et al., 2002).Spices active compounds have been included inclass of naturally occurring food preservatives andhave their inclusion in foods allowed by foodproduction regulator offices (Brull and Coote,1999).