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Best Practices for Access and Retention in Higher Education

The Center for Research on Developmental Education and Urban Literacy Best Practices for Access and Retention in Higher Education Irene M. Duranczyk Jeanne L. Higbee Dana Britt Lundell Editors Best Practices for Access and Retention in Higher Education The fifth annually published independent monograph sponsored by the Center for Research on Developmental Education and Urban Literacy, General College, University of Minnesota. Irene M. Duranczyk Jeanne L. Higbee Dana Britt Lundell Editors Emily Goff Assistant Editor Karen A. Bencke Cover Design & Layout CRDEUL. Copyright 2004 by the Center for Research on Developmental Education and Urban Literacy, General College, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN.

CRDEUL Best Practices for Access and Retention in Higher Education The fifth annually published independent monograph sponsored by the Center for Research on ...

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1 The Center for Research on Developmental Education and Urban Literacy Best Practices for Access and Retention in Higher Education Irene M. Duranczyk Jeanne L. Higbee Dana Britt Lundell Editors Best Practices for Access and Retention in Higher Education The fifth annually published independent monograph sponsored by the Center for Research on Developmental Education and Urban Literacy, General College, University of Minnesota. Irene M. Duranczyk Jeanne L. Higbee Dana Britt Lundell Editors Emily Goff Assistant Editor Karen A. Bencke Cover Design & Layout CRDEUL. Copyright 2004 by the Center for Research on Developmental Education and Urban Literacy, General College, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN.

2 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without prior written permission of the publisher. Printed in the United States of America. How to cite this monograph Duranczyk, I. M., Higbee, J. L. , Lundell, D. B. (Eds.). (2004). Best Practices for Access and Retention in Higher Education . Minneapolis, MN: Center for Research on Developmental Education and Urban Literaacy, General College, University of Minnesota. The University of Minnesota is committed to the policy that all persons shall have equal Access to its programs, facilities, and employment without regard to race, color, creed, religion, national origin, sex, age, marital status, disability, public assistance status, veteran status, or sexual orientation.

3 This publication/material can be made available in alternative formats for people with disabilities. Direct requests to Dana Lundell, General College, 340 Appleby Hall, 128 Pleasant Street SE, Minneapolis, MN, 55455, 612-626-8706. Printed on recycled and recyclable paper with at least 10 percent postconsumer material. Contents Foreword .. vii Norman Stahl Introduction .. 1. Irene M. Duranczyk Historic Note A Historical Note on Retention : The Founding of General College .. 7. Thomas Brothen and Cathrine Wambach Programs and Practices That Enhance Access and Retention Enhancing the Inclusiveness of First-Year Courses Through Universal Instructional Design .. 13. Jeanne L. Higbee, Carl J. Chung, and Leonardo Hsu Pathways of Persistence: A Review of Postsecondary Peer Cooperative Learning Programs.

4 27. David R. Arendale Multicultural and International Strategies That Foster Access and Retention Introductory-Level College Mathematics Explored Through a Sociocultural Lens .. 43. Irene M. Duranczyk, Susan Staats, Randy Moore, Jay Hatch, Murray Jensen, and Chas Somdahl Effects of Multicultural Content on Reading Performance .. 55. Jacqueline Fleming, Jason Guo, Salma Mahmood, and Cherry R. Gooden Retention and Graduation of Black Students: A Comprehensive Strategy .. 63. J. Herman Blake and Emily L. Moore Between Old Country and New: Academic Advising for Immigrant Students .. 73. Christine Swanson Access and Engagement: A New Zealand Study .. 83. Helen Anderson, Maxine Stephenson, Pam Millward, and Nane Rio Factors Influencing Retention The Influence of Financial Aid on the Persistence of Students From Low-Socioeconomic Backgrounds.

5 93. Kevin P. Saunders and John H. Schuh Measuring Undergraduate Hardiness as an Indicator of Persistence to Graduation Within Four Years ..103. Donald E. Lifton, Sandra Seay, and Andrew Bushko The Importance of a Good Start ..115. Randy Moore Contents iii Commentary The Learning Skills Professional as a Therapist? ..127. Dennis H. Congos and W. Michael Burgan On a Personal Note: A Response to Congos and Burgan ..133. Jeanne L. Higbee Response to Higbee ..137. Dennis H. Congos and W. Michael Burgan Appendices Bibliography of Resources for Multicultural Higher Education ..141. Publication Announcements ..165. Call for Submissions ..167. iv Best Practices Editorial Board Karen S. Agee Cynthia Martin University of Northern Iowa Community College of Denver Mesut Akdere Patricia J.

6 McAlexander University of Minnesota The University of Georgia David Arendale Caron Mellblom University of Minnesota California State University, Dominguez Hills Carol H. Bader Karen Miksch Georgia College and State University University of Minnesota Hunter Boylan Randy Moore Appalachian State University University of Minnesota Melanie Brown Michael O'Hear University of Minnesota University of Indiana Martha E. Casazza Audrey Mike Parker National-Louis University Davidson County Community College Carl Chung Susan M. Perlis University of Minnesota Marywood University MaryAnn K. Crawford Susan Schaeffer Central Michigan University Washington State University Chitralekha Duttagupta E. Stone Shiflet Arizona State University University of South Florida Shevawn B.

7 Eaton Bailey Smith Northern Illinois University University of La Verne Michelle Andersen Francis Judith K. Taylor Jamestown Community College Northern Kentucky University Patricia R. Grega Linda R. Thompson University of Alaska Harding University Earl J. Hawley Karen S. Uehling College of DuPage Boise State University Leon Hsu Maria Valeri-Gold University of Minnesota Georgia State University Ellen Lewin Kathy Wellington Minneapolis Community and Technical College Metropolitan State University Holly Littlefield William G. White, Jr. University of Minnesota Grambling State University James Long Ann A. Wolf Solano Community College Gonzaga University Patricia Malinowski Finger Lakes Community College Editorial Board v vi Best Practices Foreword Norman Stahl W ith the transition into the 21st century, the General College of the University of Minnesota continues to build upon its historical legacy Education Act by the Congress will place emphasis on affordable and universal Access to Higher Education and also on the Retention of students to a timely of providing Access to postsecondary Education to graduation.

8 Furthermore, the joining of the concepts diverse generations of nontraditional students. of Access and Retention as the shared focus in a single Through its Center for Research on Developmental volume is an important philosophical position to be Education and Urban Literacy (CRDEUL) it has evolved taken by the Center for Research on Developmental into an increasingly important center for the Education and Urban Literacy given its mission in development and dissemination of theory, research, General College. and best Practices in developmental Education and learning enhancement programs. CRDEUL's Still what many of us might accept as a pedagogical monograph series has addressed a number of variation of Yin and Yang, Access and Retention are important topics for the profession, and now you hold not necessarily understood nor implemented in in your hands or view on your computer screen the practice as an integrated construct in many schools fifth volume titled Best Practices for Access and across the nation.

9 However, with foresight of the likely Retention in Higher Education . policies within the Higher Education Act, it can be proposed that the field has entered a period when the It is true that our profession has a long history of idea of Access and the concept of Retention can no providing Access to Higher Education going back to longer be viewed as separate constructs. Indeed, we the preparatory programs of the 1800s as well as the must revise our thinking so as to adopt a strategy that beginnings of the junior college movement at Joliet postulates if Access is granted to an institution then Junior College, and it is true that a number of classic Retention must be promoted through research-driven texts pertaining to the topic of Access such as Cross's programs.

10 Accent on Learning (1976) should be read by all in Higher Education . It is equally true that our profession The issue then becomes whether or not we are has been concerned with the practice of Retention with providing programs that are based on the constructs historically important programs dating to Harvard of what the National Research Council and the federal University (Moore, 1915), and it is true that a number authorities refer to as scientifically-based research. It of classic texts pertaining to the topic of Retention such is clear that instruction and programmatic initiatives as Tinto's Leaving College: Rethinking the Causes and must now be driven by research, and such research Cures of Student Attrition (1987) should be read by must meet the gold standard of replicable, all in Higher Education .


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