1 353 CHAPTER-BY-CHAPTER ANSWER KEYCHAPTER 1 ANSWERS FOR THE MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS1. bThe sociological perspective is an approach to understanding human behavior byplacing it within its broader social context. (4)2. dSociologists consider occupation, income, education, gender, age, and race asdimensions of social location.(4)3. dAll three statements reflect ways in which the social sciences are like the naturalsciences. Both attempt to study and understand their subjects objectively; both attemptto undercover the relationships that create order in their respective worlds throughcontrolled observation; and both are divided into many specialized fields. (5-7)4. cGeneralization is one of the goals of scientific inquiry. It involves going beyondindividual cases by making statements that apply to broader groups or situations. (7)5. b The Industrial Revolution, imperialism, and the development of the scientific methodall contributed to the development of sociology.
2 The fourth influence was the politicalrevolutions in America and France there was no political revolution in Britain at thattime. (8-9)6. d Positivism is the application of the scientific approach to the social world. (9)7. dOf the four statements, the one that best reflects Herbert Spencer s views on charityis The poor are the weakest members of society and if society intervenes to helpthem, it is interrupting the natural process of social evolution. While manycontemporaries of Spencer s were appalled by his views, the wealthy industrialists foundthem attractive. (10)8. bThe proletariat is the large group of workers who are exploited by the small group ofcapitalists who own the means of production, according to Karl Marx. (11)9. a Durkheim believed that social factors, patterns of behavior that characterize a socialgroup, explain many types of behavior, including suicide rates. (12)10. bIn his research on suicide rates, Durkheim found that individuals integration intotheir social groups influences the overall patterns of suicide between groups.
3 He calledthis concept social integration. (12)11. aIn response to the development of the new, impersonal industrial society, Durkheimsuggested that new social groups be created to stand between the state and the believed this would address the condition of anomie. (12)12. cMax Weber's research on the rise of capitalism identified religious beliefs as the key.(13)13. d All are correct. Replication helps researchers overcome distortions that values cancause, results can be compared when a study is repeated, and replication involves therepetition of a study by other researchers. (14)14. c Social facts and Verstehen go hand-in-hand. Social facts are patterns of behavior thatcharacterize a social group. By applying Verstehen, your understanding of what it meansto be human and to face various situations in life, you gain an understanding of people'sbehavior. (15)15. bIn the nineteenth century, it was unlikely that women would study sociology becausegender roles were rigidly defined; women were supposed to devote themselves to the fourK's Kirche, K chen, Kinder, und Kleider (church, cooking, children, and clothes).
4 (16-17)16. bThe statement that, Unlike the situation in Europe, many North American womenfound that there were few barriers and they were able to train in sociology and receivefaculty appointments, is incorrect. In the early years of sociology, the situation ofwomen in North America was similar to that of European women they were largelyCHAPTER-BY-CHAPTER ANSWER KEY354excluded and their work ignored. As a result, many turned to social activism, especiallyworking with the poor and immigrant groups. Many male sociologists who worked asprofessors denied female sociologists the title of sociologist, preferring to call themsocial workers. (17)17. cW. E. B. Du Bois was an African-American sociologist who wrote extensively on racerelations. In both his personal and professional life, he experienced prejudice anddiscrimination. His commitment to racial equality led him to establish the NAACP. (19-20)18. c Sociologists who conduct research for government commissions or agenciesinvestigating social problems are practicing applied sociology.
5 (21)19. bSymbolic interactionism is the theoretical perspective that views society as composedof symbols that people use to establish meaning, develop their views of the world, andcommunicate with one another. (23)20. c In explaining the high divorce rate, the symbolic interaction perspective wouldfocus on explanations such as emotional satisfaction, the meaning of children, and themeaning of parenthood. (23-25)21. dAccording to Robert Merton, an unintended consequence that can hurt a system sequilibrium is a latent dysfunction. (26)22. d Industrialization and urbanization have undermined the traditional purposes of thefamily, according to theorists using functional analysis. (29)23. aKarl Marx first asserted that conflict is inherent in all relations that have c Feminists often focus their research on the oppression of women by men. (29)25. b Conflict theorists might explain the high rate of divorce by looking at societies basicinequalities between males and females.
6 (29)26. dSince each theoretical perspective provides a different, often sharply contrastingpicture of our world, no theory or level of analysis encompasses all of reality. By puttingthe contributions of each perspective and level of analysis together, we gain a morecomprehensive picture of social life. (30-31)27. cThe first phase of sociology in the United States stretched from the founding of thefirst departments of sociology in the last decade of the nineteenth century into the1940s. This phase was characterized by an interest in using sociological knowledge toimprove social life and change society. (31)28. a The purpose of pure or basic sociological research is to make discoveries about life inhuman groups, not to make changes in those groups. On the other hand, applied andclinical sociology are more involved in suggesting or bringing about social change. (31)29. cIn recent years, more sociologists have sought ways in which to apply their researchfindings to solving social problems.
7 This represents a return to applied sociology. (31)30. dThe author of your text suggests that globalization, the breaking down of nationalboundaries because of communication, trade and travel, is very likely going to transformsociology in the United States. As global issues intrude more into society,sociologists will have to broaden the scope and focus of their research. (32)ANSWERS FOR TRUE-FALSE QUESTIONS1. True. (4)2. True. (4)3. True. (6)4. True. (6)5. False. Sociologists focus on external influences (people's experiences) instead of internalmechanisms, such as instincts. (7)6. False. Sociology has many similarities to the other social sciences. What distinguishessociology from other disciplines is that sociologists do not focus on single socialinstitutions, they study industrialized societies, and they stress factors external to theindividual. (8) CHAPTER-BY-CHAPTER ANSWER KEY3557. True. (8)8. True. (10)9. True. (11)10.
8 True. (12)11. False. Weber agreed with much of what Marx wrote, but he strongly disagreed thateconomics is the central force in social change. Weber saw religion as playing that role.(11,13-14)12. True. (14)13. True. (15)14. False. Harriet Martineau's ground-breaking work on social life in Great Britain and theUnited States was largely ignored; she is remembered for her translations of AugusteComte's work. (17)15. True. (23)16. True. (23)17. False. Although functionalists do believe the family has lost many of its traditionalpurposes, they do not believe they have all been lost. Some of the existing functions arepresently under assault or are being eroded. (26)18. False. Some conflict theorists use this theory in a much broader sense. (28)19. True. (30)20. False. Many sociologists are seeking ways to apply their knowledge, and manydepartments of sociology now offer courses in applied sociology. (31)ANSWERS TO THE FILL-IN-THE-BLANK QUESTIONS1.
9 Sociological perspective (4) 2. Bourgeoisie (11) 3. Durkheim (11) 4. social reform (21) 5. theory (23) 6. symbolic interactionism (23) 7. functionalism (25) 8. manifest (26)9. conflict (29)10. equal (29)11. marriage (29)12. macro (29)13. social analysis (31)14. practical (31)15. Globalization (31)ANSWERS TO MATCH THESE SOCIAL SCIENTISTS WITH THEIR CONTRIBUTIONS1. cAuguste Comte: proposed the use of positivism2. aHerbert Spencer: coined the phrase "the survival of the fittest"3. gKarl Marx: believed the key to human history was class struggle4. hC. Wright Mills: encouraged North American sociologists to focus on social reform5. dEmile Durkheim: stressed social facts6. iHarriet Martineau: published Society in America; translated Comte's work intoEnglish7.
10 JRobert K. Merton: distinguished between functions and dysfunctions8. bW. E. B. Du Bois: was an early African-American sociologist9. fMax Weber: believed religion was a central force in social change10. eJane Addams: tried to bridge the gap between the powerful and the powerlessCHAPTER-BY-CHAPTER ANSWER KEY356 GUIDELINES FOR ANSWERING THE ESSAY QUESTIONS1. Explain what the sociological perspective encompasses and then, using that perspective,discuss the forces that shaped the discipline of are two parts to this question. First, you are asked to define the sociologicalperspective. As you define this, you would want to mention the idea of social location,perhaps by bringing into your essay C. Wright Mills' observations on the connection betweenbiography and history (4-5). Another way to explain the perspective would be to contrastsociology with other disciplines, talking about what sociology is and what it isn't (5-7).The second part of the essay involves discussing the forces that shaped sociology and itsearly followers.