1 Country Analysis report : lao pdr . Analysis to inform the Lao People's Democratic Republic . United Nations Partnership Framework ( 2017 -2021). The United Nations in lao pdr . Vientiane, 11 November 2015. Contents Acronyms .. v Executive Summary .. vii Purpose of the Country Analysis .. 1. 1. Introduction .. 2. 2. Enhance competitiveness .. 8. Background: AEC entry and its implications .. 8. Youth and the demographic dividend .. 8. Private sector partnerships .. 9. Trade, SMEs and inclusive industrialization .. 10. Migration and transnational crime .. 12. Looking forward: recommendations for UN support .. 14. Youth .. 14. Trade .. 14. SMEs and industrialization .. 14. Partnerships with the private sector .. 15. Transnational crime .. 15. 3. Promote good governance .. 16. Public sector reform and local governance .. 16. Rule of law and access to justice .. 17. Connectivity .. 19. Looking forward: recommendations for UN support .. 20. 4. End poverty and reduce inequalities.
2 21. Trends, disparities and determinants .. 21. Context .. 23. Looking forward: recommendations for UN support .. 24. 5. Achieve productive employment and decent work .. 27. Trends, disparities and determinants .. 27. Context .. 28. Looking forward: recommendations for UN support .. 29. 6. End hunger and improve 33. Trends, disparities and determinants .. 33. Context .. 35. ii Looking forward: recommendations for UN support .. 36. 7. Ensure inclusive and quality education .. 40. Trends, disparities and determinants .. 40. Context .. 42. Looking forward: recommendations for UN support .. 43. 8. Achieve gender equality and empower women and girls .. 46. Trends, disparities and determinants .. 46. Education and gender .. 46. Sexual and reproductive 47. Employment and gender .. 47. Political participation and gender .. 48. Violence against women .. 48. Context .. 49. Looking forward: recommendations for UN support .. 50. 9. Achieve maternal and child health .. 53. Trends, disparities and determinants.
3 53. Child 53. Maternal and reproductive health .. 54. Context .. 56. Looking forward: recommendations for UN support .. 57. 10. Accelerate HIV response .. 61. Trends, disparities and determinants .. 61. 63. Looking forward: recommendations for UN support .. 63. 11. Combat malaria, tuberculosis and other diseases .. 66. Trends, disparities and determinants .. 66. 67. Looking forward: recommendations for UN support .. 68. 12. Protect environmental resources and promote resilience .. 70. Trends, disparities and determinants .. 70. 72. Looking forward: recommendations for UN support .. 73. 13. Ensure sustainable water and 76. Trends, disparities and determinants .. 76. 78. Looking forward: recommendations for UN support .. 79. iii 14. Protect vulnerable children .. 83. Trends, disparities and determinants .. 83. 85. Looking forward: recommendations for UN support .. 86. 15. Reduce UXO impact .. 89. Trends, disparities and determinants .. 89. 90. Looking forward: recommendations for UN support.
4 90. 16. Expand partnerships for 94. 17. Conclusions .. 95. Bibliography .. 96. Technical Notes and References .. 104. iv Acronyms ADB: Asian Development Bank MFNSAP: Multisectoral Food and Nutrition Security AEC: ASEAN Economic Community Action Plan AIDS: Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome MMR: Maternal mortality ratio ANAR: adjusted net attendance rate MNCH: Maternal, Neonatal and Child Health Care ANC1: First antenatal care visit MoES: Ministry of Education and Sports ASEAN: Association of South-East Asian Nations MoH: Ministry of Health ASLO: Assessment of Student Learning Outcomes MoHA: Ministry of Home Affairs AXO: abandoned explosive ordnance MoIC: Ministry of Industry and Commerce BEmONC: basic emergency obstetric and newborn MoNRE: Ministry of Natural Resources and care Environment CCM: Convention on Cluster Munitions MPI: Ministry of Planning and Investment CEDAW: Convention on the Elimination of All MSM: Men having sex with men Forms of Discrimination against Women NCAW: Lao National Commission for Advancement of CMW.
5 International Convention on the Protection Women of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and NCCA: National Committee for the Control of AIDS. Members of Their Families NCD: Non-communicable disease CRC: Convention on the Rights of the Child NER: Net enrolment rate CRPD: Convention on the Rights of Persons with NGO: Non-governmental organization Disabilities NPA: Non-Profit Association CSO: Civil Society Organization NSAP: National Strategic and Action Plan (for DDF: District Development Fund HIV/AIDS and STI Prevention and Control). DIH: Department of Industry and Handicraft NSEDP: National Socio-Economic Development Plan DOSMEP: Department for Small and Medium NTC: National Tuberculosis Centre Enterprise Promotion NTS: non-technical survey (in the UXO sector). DPT: diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus OECD: Organisation for Economic Cooperation and DTIS: Diagnostic Trade Integration Studies Development ECD: Early childhood development PASEC: Program for the Analysis of Education Systems ECE: Early childhood education PES: payment for ecosystem services EGRA: Early Grades Reading Assessment PLHIV: People living with HIV.
6 EMIS: Education Management Information System PMTCT: Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission ETPR: employment to population ratio PoU: Prevalence of undernourishment EVI: Economic Vulnerability Index PWID: People who inject drugs FAO: Food and Agricultural Organization of the REDD: The United Nations Collaborative Programme on United Nations Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and FSC: Forest Stewardship Council Forest Degradation in Developing Countries. GARP: Global AIDS Response Progress report SEZs: Special and Specific Economic Zones GER: Gross enrolment ratio SME: Small and medium enterprises GHG: Greenhouse Gases STI: Sexually Transmitted Infections GHI: Global Hunger Index SUN: Scaling Up Nutrition GNI: gross national income TB: Tuberculosis HCFC: hydro chlorofluorocarbons TDF: Trade Development Facility v HEF: Health Equity Fund TFR: Total Fertility Rate HepB: Hepatitis B TVET: Technical and vocational education and training Hib: Haemophilus influenzae type b UIS: UNESCO Institute for Statistics HIV: Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection UNAIDS: Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS.
7 HSRF: Health Sector Reform Framework UNCDF: United Nations Capital Development Fund ICCPR: International Covenant on Civil and UN-CDP: United Nations Committee for Development Political Rights Policy ICERD: International Convention on the UN-DESA: United Nations Department of Economic and Elimination of All Forms of Racial Social Affairs Discrimination UNDAF: United Nations Development Assistance ICESCR: International Covenant on Economic, Framework Action Social and Cultural Rights UNEP: United Nations Environment Programme ILO: International Labour Organization UNESCO: United Nations Educational, Scientific and INGO: International non-governmental organization Cultural Organization IUCN: International Union for the Conservation of UNFPA: United Nations Population Fund Nature UNGASS: United Nations General Assembly Special JMP: Joint Monitoring Programme UNICEF/WHO Session lao pdr : The Lao People's Democratic Republic UNIAP: United Nations Inter-Agency Project on Human LDC: Least Developed Country Trafficking LFS: Labour Force Survey UNICEF: United Nations Children's Fund LFTU: Lao Federation of Trade Unions UNISDR: United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction LSB: Lao Statistics Bureau UPR: Universal Periodic Review LWU: Lao Women's Union UXO: Unexploded Ordnance MAF: MDG Acceleration Framework VCD: Video CD or Compact Disc digital video MCH: Maternal and child health WHO: World Health Organization MDG: Millennium Development Goal vi Executive Summary 1.
8 Overview. The Lao People's Democratic Republic ( lao pdr ) is a land-locked, ethnically diverse and mountainous Country with an estimated population at million. It has the distinction of having the highest total fertility rate (TFR) among ASEAN countries in recent years. With one of the youngest populations in the region, lao pdr is projected to benefit from the demographic dividend . to the economy in the medium-term. However, this will be realized only if young women and young men are better equipped with the appropriate skills and knowledge, and new jobs are able to keep pace with the growth of the working age population. 2. Resource-reliant growth. Strong economic growth has enabled lao pdr to move from the ranks of low income economies to a lower middle-income Country . However, the Country 's economic growth, which is heavily reliant on natural resources, has not created commensurate levels of employment. The economy will need to diversify to achieve more inclusive and sustained growth, particularly if the lao pdr is to achieve its goal of graduation from Least Developed Country (LDC) status by the 2020s.
9 3. Challenges related to AEC entry. Regional economic integration is expected to lead to the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) by the end of 2015, with the 10 ASEAN countries expected to transform into a single region with free movement of goods, services, investment, skilled labour and freer flow of capital. lao pdr will need to address a number of challenges to realize the benefits of AEC entry: Skills gap. The Country urgently needs to upgrade the education and skills of its young population. lao pdr will not be able to meet the demand for medium-skilled and high-skilled workers generated by AEC entry unless it can resolve the current mismatch between labour market needs and young people's education and skills. Indeed, to realize the full potential of its youth, an overarching youth policy will be needed. Low productivity. The agricultural sector, which accounts for around 70 percent of employment, is characterized by low productivity. Unless this is tackled, Lao will not be able fully develop its potential in the next decade.
10 lao pdr 's economy needs to become much more competitive and diversified. Weak institutional capacities pose challenges in establishing rule of law and good governance and in fighting corruption. Looser controls with AEC entry could lead to a rise in illegal trade, trafficking and crime. lao pdr is already a source, and to a lesser extent, a transit and destination Country for sex trafficking and forced labour of women, children and men. Without proper protection mechanisms and enforcement of regulations and laws, AEC could have a negative impact. 4. Human rights instruments. lao pdr has acceded to or ratified seven out of ten key international human rights instruments. The Country continues to incorporate these obligations into its national laws, policies and programmes. However, enforcement and implementation lag behind, and most reports to treaty bodies are overdue. In 2015, the Working Group on the Universal Periodic Review (UPR) made 196 recommendations to address these gaps, of which the Government of the lao pdr has accepted 116.