1 Current Status of Scientific Research, consensus , and Regulation Regarding Potential Health Effects of Power-Line electric and magnetic Fields (EMF). January 2006. Prepared for State of Connecticut Connecticut Siting Council 10 Franklin Square New Britain, CT 06051. Prepared by: Gradient Corporation 20 University Road Cambridge, MA 02138. January 25, 2006. Gradient CORPORATION. Table of Contents Page 1 Objectives of this 1. 2 Nature of 2. Definitions of electric and magnetic Fields (EMF) .. 2. Sources of EMF .. 3. 3 Research Studies on EMF Exposure and Risk of Cancer.
2 5. 4 Three Lines of Scientific Evidence .. 8. 5 Epidemiologic 10. 6 Laboratory-Animal Studies .. 12. 7 Mechanisms of EMF Interaction with Organisms .. 13. Ionizing versus Non-Ionizing Electromagnetic 13. Assessing EMF Effects through Mechanism and Physics considerations .. 14. 8 Public Health consensus Groups: Conclusions and 17. 9 Summaries of Key Recent Literature Articles .. 19. Epidemiology Results .. 19. Laboratory-Animal 21. Mechanistic Considerations .. 23. 10 Conclusions on the State of the 25. Strengths and Weaknesses of the Lines of 25. Identifying Effect Levels from Epidemiology, Animal Studies, and Mechanistic 25.
3 Synthesis of a Guideline or Screening 26. Appendix A Public Health Scientific consensus Groups: List and Sources of Information Appendix B Public Health Scientific consensus Groups: Summary Conclusions Appendix C Physics, Biophysics, and Plausibility of EMF Mechanisms of Interaction Appendix D List of Recent Key Studies: Epidemiology, Animal, and Mechanistic Gradient CORPORATION. Appendix E Summary Conclusions from Recent Key Literature Articles (E1: Epidemiology). (E2: Laboratory Animal Research). (E3: Mechanistic and In Vitro Research). Appendix F List of EMF Articles Identified, year 2000 to the Present Gradient CORPORATION.
4 1 Objectives of this Report The State of Connecticut, Connecticut Siting Council ( CSC, New Britain, CT) retained Gradient Corporation ( Gradient, Cambridge, MA) to gather Current materials on the various Scientific lines of research regarding potential health effects of utility power-line electric and magnetic fields (EMF). The goal was to provide information relevant to developing CSC guidelines on rendering energy- related siting decisions. The CSC plans to incorporate the information identified from EMF research articles, the conclusions from EMF Scientific reviews, and the analyses by public-health consensus groups into updated EMF Best Management Practices that address possible health effects of 60 hertz (Hz).
5 EMF exposures from electric generation, substation, and transmission facilities in the State of Connecticut. The contents of this Report to the CSC include (a) an overview of EMF and the issues that surround it, (b) a summary of the Current Status of EMF research, and (c) conclusions from Scientific consensus groups around the world that have addressed the EMF issue. The information provided in this Report has been gathered through a variety of means, not only through computerized Scientific literature search procedures, but also through Internet searches, and by examination of commercial and non-profit databases on EMF health effects.
6 1 Emphasis was placed on integration of the three main lines of Scientific evidence, as described more fully below: Epidemiology, Animal Studies, and Mechanistic Analyses. The central focus of this Report is on EMF and health endpoints related to cancer, specifically childhood leukemia. The Scientific literature shows that, for EMF, the separate lines of evidence disagree as to the EMF exposure levels that may be of concern. Integration of the different types of Scientific knowledge requires examination of the strengths and weaknesses of each approach. Analyses in this Report suggest bases for weighing the different lines of evidence on potential EMF health effects.
7 Ultimately, an informed decision is required to select the most plausible interpretation of available data. 1. Peer-reviewed articles were identified through a variety of sources to identify the recent research literature. Search engines such as Pub Med (National Library of Medicine) and Science Citation Index were used. In addition, the large EMF database, assembled by Information Ventures, Inc. was extensively queried. Gradient also accessed reference lists available online from the World Health Organization (WHO) that are compiled as part of their International EMF.
8 Project ( ) and from Dr. John Moulder's website on Electromagnetic Fields and Human Health: Power Lines and Cancer Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) . ( #1). 1 Gradient CORPORATION. 2 Nature of EMF. Definitions of electric and magnetic Fields (EMF). All matter contains electrically charged particles. Most objects are electrically neutral because positive and negative charges are present in equal numbers. When the balance of electric charges is altered, electric fields are created that act on other electric charges. Common electric - field effects are the static-electricity attraction between a comb and our hair, or the static cling of clothes in a dryer.
9 electric charges in motion, such as the Current produced by a flashlight battery, produce magnetic fields. The magnetic fields of permanent magnets or electromagnets (such as in electric motors) are also caused by charges in motion, either at the atomic level, or in wires. Electricity both in nature and in society's use of it produces EMF. To change a neutral object into an electrically charged one requires work, and work put into electrically charging something is measured by the voltage. Voltage is the pressure of the electricity, and can be envisioned as analogous to the pressure of water in a plumbing system.
10 Numerically, voltage is the work-per-unit-charge and the units are volts (V) or kilovolts (kV; 1 kV = 1,000 V). electric charges push and pull on each other. Opposite charges ( , + and ) attract and like charges ( , + and +, or and ) repel. Scientists explain these forces by saying that each electric charge generates an electric field , and the presence of this electric field exerts force on other nearby charges. The electric field is a measure of force-per-unit-charge, and its units are volts per meter (V/m). When electric charges move, an electric Current exists, and the Current generates a magnetic field .