1 WCD Thematic Review Social Issues displacement , resettlement , rehabilitation , reparation , and Development Final Version: November 2000. Prepared for the World Commission on Dams (WCD) by: Leopoldo Jose Bartolome, National University of Misiones, Argentina Chris de Wet, Rhodes University, South Africa Harsh Mander, Indian Administrative Service, India Vijay Kumar Nagraj, Freelance Researcher, India With contributions from Christine Mohha Danklmaier, National University of Misiones, Argentina Ravi Hemadri, Bisalpur Bandh Samanvaya Samiti, India Jun Jing, City University of New York, Scott Robinson, Universidad Metropolitana, Mexico Secretariat of the World Commission on Dams Box 16002, Vlaeberg, Cape Town 8018, South Africa Phone: 27 21 426 4000 Fax: 27 21 426 0036.
2 Website: E-mail: This is a working paper prepared for the World Commission on Dams as part of its information-gathering activity. The views, conclusions, and recommendations in the working paper are not to be taken to represent the views of the Commission. displacement , resettlement , rehabilitation , reparation and Development ii Disclaimer This is a working paper of the World Commission on Dams - the report herein was prepared for the Commission as part of its information gathering activity. The views, conclusions, and recommendations are not intended to represent the views of the Commission. The Commission's views, conclusions, and recommendations will be set forth in the Commission's own report.
3 Please cite this report as follows: Bartolome, , de Wet, C., Mander, H., Nagraj, 2000. displacement , resettlement , rehabilitation , reparation , and Development, WCD Thematic Review prepared as an input to the World Commission on Dams, Cape Town, The WCD Knowledge Base This report is one component of the World Commission on Dams knowledge base from which the WCD. drew to finalize its report Dams and Development-A New Framework for Decision Making . The knowledge base consists of seven case studies, two country studies, one briefing paper, seventeen thematic reviews of five sectors, a cross check survey of 125 dams, four regional consultations and nearly 1000 topic-related submissions.
4 All the reports listed below, are available on CD-ROM or can be downloaded from Case Studies (Focal Dams) Country Studies Briefing Paper Grand Coulee Dam, Columbia River Basin, USA India Russia and NIS. Tarbela Dam, Indus River Basin, Pakistan China countries Aslantas Dam, Ceyhan River Basin, Turkey Kariba Dam, Zambezi River, Zambia/Zimbabwe Tucurui Dam, Tocantins River, Brazil Pak Mun Dam, Mun-Mekong River Basin, Thailand Glomma and Laagen Basin, Norway Pilot Study of the Gariep and Van der Kloof dams- Orange River South Africa Thematic Reviews TR : Social Impact of Large Dams: Equity and TR : Electricity Supply and Demand Distributional Issues Management Options TR : Dams, Indigenous People and Vulnerable TR : Irrigation Options Ethnic Minorities TR : Water Supply Options TR : displacement , resettlement , TR.
5 Flood Control and Management Options rehabilitation , reparation and TR : Operation, Monitoring and Development Decommissioning of Dams . TR : Dams, Ecosystem Functions and TR : Planning Approaches Environmental Restoration TR : Environmental and Social Assessment for : Dams, Ecosystem Functions and Large Dams Environmental Restoration TR : River Basins Institutional Frameworks TR : Dams and Global Change and Management Options TR : Regulation, Compliance and TR : Economic, Financial and Distributional Implementation Analysis TR : Participation, Negotiation and Conflict TR : International Trends in Project Financing Management: Large Dam Projects Regional Consultations Hanoi, Colombo, Sao Paulo and Cairo Cross-check Survey of 125 dams This is a working paper prepared for the World Commission on Dams as part of its information-gathering activity.
6 The views, conclusions, and recommendations in the working paper are not to be taken to represent the views of the Commission. displacement , resettlement , rehabilitation , reparation and Development iii Financial and in-kind Contributors: Financial and in-kind support for the WCD process was received from 54 contributors including governments, international agencies, the private sector, NGOs and various foundations. According to the mandate of the Commission, all funds received were untied' these funds were provided with no conditions attached to them. ABB Skanska ADB - Asian Development Bank SNC Lavalin AID - Assistance for India's Development South Africa - Ministry of Water Affairs and Atlas Copco Forestry Australia - AusAID Statkraft Berne Declaration Sweden - Sida British Dam Society IADB - Inter-American Development Bank Canada - CIDA Ireland - Ministry of Foreign Affairs Carnegie Foundation IUCN - The World Conservation Union Coyne et Bellier Japan - Ministry of Foreign Affairs Mott Foundation KfW - Kredietanstalt f r Wiederaufbau Denmark - Ministry of Foreign Affairs Lahmeyer International EDF - Electricit de France Lotek Engineering Engevix Manitoba Hydro ENRON International National Wildlife Federation, USA.
7 Finland - Ministry of Foreign Affairs Norplan Germany - BMZ: Federal Ministry for Economic Norway - Ministry of Foreign Affairs Co-operation Switzerland - SDC. Goldman Environmental Foundation The Netherlands - Ministry of Foreign Affairs GTZ - Deutsche Geschellschaft f r Technische The World Bank Zusammenarbeit Tractebel Engineering Halcrow Water United Kingdom - DFID. Harza Engineering UNEP - United Nations Environment Hydro Quebec Programme Novib United Nations Foundation David and Lucille Packard Foundation USA Bureau of Reclamation Paul Rizzo and Associates Voith Siemens People's Republic of China Worley International Rockefeller Brothers Foundation WWF International This is a working paper prepared for the World Commission on Dams as part of its information-gathering activity.
8 The views, conclusions, and recommendations in the working paper are not to be taken to represent the views of the Commission. displacement , resettlement , rehabilitation , reparation and Development iv Executive summary displacement or the involuntary and forced relocation of people has come to be acknowledged as among the most significant negative impacts of large water resources development projects such as dams. It is estimated that nearly 60 million people have been displaced worldwide due to the reservoirs created by large dams (McCully, P. 1996). A World Bank review of 192 projects worldwide for the period 1986. and 1993 estimated that 4 million people were displaced annually by the 300 large dams (on an average).
9 That entered into construction every year. All these figures are at best only careful estimations and certainly do not include the hundreds of thousands and millions who may have been displaced due to several others aspects of the projects such as canals, powerhouses, associated compensatory measures such as bio-reserves, etc. displacement and resettlement is however more than a question of sheer numbers (or the lack thereof), though this is one very critical issue in itself. There are several issues involved, such as human rights, governance and accountability, participation and self-determination in development, the complexities of resettlement goals, options and strategies, and relevant legal and policy instruments.
10 These are but some of the important issues that are considered in this Thematic Review1. The objectives of this Thematic Review were to review recent practices relating to displacement , resettlement , rehabilitation , and development of people negatively affected by the construction of dams, in order:: (1) to locate the global experiences in dam-induced displacement and understand the socio-political context of displacement and resettlement ; to assess how legal and regulatory instruments facilitating displacement and involuntary resettlement have performed in safeguarding the rights of affected people; to elaborate the constraints to a successful resettlement programmed in development mode.