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English, French, and Spanish Colonies: A Comparison

C O L O N I Z AT I O N A N D S E T T L E M E N T ( 15 8 5 176 3 ). english , french , and Spanish colonies : A Comparison THE HISTORY OF COLONIAL NORTH AMERICA centers other hand, enjoyed far more freedom and were able primarily around the struggle of England, France, and to govern themselves as long as they followed english Spain to gain control of the continent. Settlers law and were loyal to the king. In addition, unlike crossed the Atlantic for different reasons, and their France and Spain, England encouraged immigration governments took different approaches to their colo- from other nations, thus boosting its colonial popula- nizing efforts.

COLONIZATION AND SETTLEMENT (1585–1763) English, French, and Spanish Colonies: A Comparison © Media Projects Incorporated Published by Facts on File Inc.

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1 C O L O N I Z AT I O N A N D S E T T L E M E N T ( 15 8 5 176 3 ). english , french , and Spanish colonies : A Comparison THE HISTORY OF COLONIAL NORTH AMERICA centers other hand, enjoyed far more freedom and were able primarily around the struggle of England, France, and to govern themselves as long as they followed english Spain to gain control of the continent. Settlers law and were loyal to the king. In addition, unlike crossed the Atlantic for different reasons, and their France and Spain, England encouraged immigration governments took different approaches to their colo- from other nations, thus boosting its colonial popula- nizing efforts.

2 These differences created both advan- tion. By 1763 the english had established dominance tages and disadvantages that profoundly affected the in North America, having defeated France and Spain New World's fate. France and Spain, for instance, in the french and Indian War. However, those were governed by autocratic sovereigns whose rule regions that had been colonized by the french or was absolute; their colonists went to America as ser- Spanish would retain national characteristics that vants of the Crown. The english colonists, on the linger to this day.

3 english colonies french colonies Spanish colonies Settlements/Geography Most colonies established by royal char- First colonies were trading posts in Crown-sponsored conquests gained rich- ter. Earliest settlements were in Virginia Newfoundland; others followed in wake es for Spain and expanded its empire. and Massachusetts but soon spread all of exploration of the St. Lawrence valley, Most of the southern and southwestern along the Atlantic coast, from Maine to parts of Canada, and the Mississippi regions claimed, as well as sections of Georgia, and into the continent's interior River.

4 Settlements include Quebec the California coast. Settlements include as far as the Mississippi River. (1608) and Montreal (1642). Louisiana St. Augustine, Florida (1565); Santa Fe, settled in the late 1600s. New Mexico (1610); and numerous cities in Texas and California. Population Sources Colonists were recruited from among Initially fur traders, merchants, and mis- Conquistadores, soldiers, and mission- middle-class farmers, artisans, and sionaries. In 1665 some 1100 french aries were the primary Spanish coloniz- tradesmen. Indentured servants, spe- soldiers arrived and were given land.

5 Ers; farmers and traders came later. cialists in certain areas ( , sawmill Neither Protestants nor peasant farmers workers, lumbermen), and convicted were allowed to emigrate. criminals were also brought over. Immigrants from other countries were welcomed. Government Distance from England and a frugal colonies were fully subject to the french colonies were governed by crown- Parliament allowed colonists to set up king. There were no political rights or appointed viceroys or governors. Media Projects Incorporated Published by Facts on File Inc. All electronic storage, reproduction, or transmittal is copyright protected by the publisher.

6 Local governments and representative representative government, and public Settlers had to obey the king's laws and assemblies and to tax themselves, as meetings could not be held without per- could make none of their own. long as they did not take up arms mission. against the Crown. Religion Largely non-Catholics. Although some Even though Protestants had played a Settlers were restricted to Catholics;. tolerance was practiced in most role in the founding of New France, from Protestants were persecuted and driven colonies , the Puritans in Massachusetts around 1659 on they were excluded out.

7 Established an autocratic and restrictive from the colony. Colonial life was largely religious leadership. Pennsylvania man- controlled by the french Catholic clergy. dated complete tolerance. Economy Diverse economic activities included Although the french government encour- Largely a trading economy; some farm- farming, fishing, and trading. Exports aged farming efforts, the fur trade ing in the West. Commerce was con- included tobacco, rice, timber, and fish. proved to be more lucrative. Plantations trolled by the Spanish board of trade, Tobacco was the main source of rev- established in the Mississippi valley with regulations enforced by the enue in the Virginia and North Carolina largely failed.

8 Spanish military. colonies . Population Growth Rapid growth due to liberal immigration Slow growth; by 1672 no more than Slow growth due to greater emphasis on policies. By 1627 Virginia had approxi- 5,000 colonists had settled throughout military conquest, poor relations with mately 1,000 settlers. By 1754 total New France. In Canada the french pop- Native Americans, and numerous early population in the english colonies had ulation totaled just under 40,000 by failures to establish permanent settle- grown to million; this included large 1734. In Louisiana, by 1763 there were ments.

9 Largest Spanish populations proportions of German and french . approximately 10,000 settlers, including were in Florida, Texas, California, and 5,000 slaves and Acadians. Mexico. Relations with Originally friendly; early colonists relied Despite conversion efforts of missionar- Spanish missionaries saw Native Native Americans on Native Americans for trade and for ies, french respect for Native Americans Americans as heathens to be converted help with survival. Eventually greed for allowed many to forge alliances, espe- to Christianity; soldiers viewed them as land led to major conflicts with Indians.

10 Cially in their wars against the British. fit only for killing or subjugation.