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Evaluación de los Ecosistemas del Milenio Informe …

Evaluaci n de los Ecosistemas del Milenio 1 Informe de S ntesis 2 Borrador final 3 Nota: Los gr ficos incluidos en este Informe NO son finales 4 5 6 7 8 Un Informe de la Evaluaci n de los Ecosistemas del Milenio 9 10 11 Equipo de autores principales: Walter V. Reid, Harold A. Mooney, Angela Cropper, Doris 12 Capistrano, Stephen R. Carpenter, Kanchan Chopra, Partha Dasgupta, Thomas Dietz, Anantha Kumar 13 Duraiappah, Rashid Hassan, Roger Kasperson, Rik Leemans, Robert M. May, Tony ( ) 14 McMichael, Prabhu Pingali, Cristi n Samper, Robert Scholes, Robert T. Watson, Zakri, Zhao 15 Shidong, Neville J. Ash, Elena Bennett, Pushpam Kumar, Marcus J. Lee, Ciara Raudsepp-Hearne, 16 Henk Simons, Jillian Thonell, and Monika B.

Final Draft – Embargoed until 30 March 5 Resumen para los encargados de adoptar decisiones Todas las personas del mundo dependen por completo de los ecosistemas de la Tierra y de los servicios que

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Transcription of Evaluación de los Ecosistemas del Milenio Informe …

1 Evaluaci n de los Ecosistemas del Milenio 1 Informe de S ntesis 2 Borrador final 3 Nota: Los gr ficos incluidos en este Informe NO son finales 4 5 6 7 8 Un Informe de la Evaluaci n de los Ecosistemas del Milenio 9 10 11 Equipo de autores principales: Walter V. Reid, Harold A. Mooney, Angela Cropper, Doris 12 Capistrano, Stephen R. Carpenter, Kanchan Chopra, Partha Dasgupta, Thomas Dietz, Anantha Kumar 13 Duraiappah, Rashid Hassan, Roger Kasperson, Rik Leemans, Robert M. May, Tony ( ) 14 McMichael, Prabhu Pingali, Cristi n Samper, Robert Scholes, Robert T. Watson, Zakri, Zhao 15 Shidong, Neville J. Ash, Elena Bennett, Pushpam Kumar, Marcus J. Lee, Ciara Raudsepp-Hearne, 16 Henk Simons, Jillian Thonell, and Monika B.

2 Zurek 17 Equipo de autores extendido: MA Coordinating Lead Authors, Lead Authors, Contributing 18 Authors, and Sub-Global Coordinators 19 Revisores: Jos Sarukh n and Anne Whyte (co-chairs) and MA Board of Review Editors 20 Final Draft Embargoed until 30 March 2 Panel de la Evaluaci n de Ecosistemas del Milenio 1 Harold A. Mooney (co-chair), Stanford University, United States 2 Angela Cropper (co-chair), Cropper Foundation, Trinidad and Tobago 3 Doris Capistrano, Center for International Forestry Research, Indonesia 4 Stephen R. Carpenter, University of Wisconsin, United States 5 Kanchan Chopra, Institute of Economic Growth, India 6 Partha Dasgupta, University of Cambridge, United Kingdom 7 Rik Leemans, Wageningen University, Netherlands 8 Robert M.

3 May, University of Oxford, United Kingdom 9 Prabhu Pingali, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Italy 10 Rashid Hassan, University of Pretoria, South Africa 11 Cristi n Samper, Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History, United States 12 Robert Scholes, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, South Africa 13 Robert T. Watson, World Bank, United States (ex officio) 14 A. H. Zakri, United Nations University, Japan (ex officio) 15 Zhao Shidong, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China 16 17 Presidentes de la Junta Editora: 18 Jos Sarukh n, Universidad Nacional Aut noma de M xico, Mexico 19 Anne Whyte, Mestor Associates Ltd., Canada 20 21 Director de la EM 22 Walter V. Reid, Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, Malaysia and United States 23 24 Junta Directiva de la Evaluaci n de los Ecosistemas del Milenio 25 The MA Board represents the users of the findings of the MA process.

4 26 27 Co-chairs 28 Robert T. Watson, World Bank 29 Zakri, United Nations University 30 31 Institutional Representatives 32 Salvatore Arico, Division of Ecological Science, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural 33 Organization 34 Peter Bridgewater, Secretary General, Ramsar Convention on Wetlands 35 Hama Arba Diallo, Executive Secretary, United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification 36 Adel El-Beltagy, Director General, International Center for Agricultural Research in Dry Areas, 37 Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research 38 Max Finlayson, Chair, Scientific and Technical Review Panel, Ramsar Convention on Wetlands 39 Colin Galbraith, Chair, Scientific Council, Convention on Migratory Species 40 Erika Harms, Program Officer for Biodiversity, United Nations Foundation 41 Robert Hepworth, Executive Secretary, Convention on Migratory Species 42 Olav Kj rven, Director, Energy and Environment Group,United Nations Development Programme 43 Kerstin Leitner, Assistant Director-General, Sustainable Development and Healthy Environments, 44 World Health Organization 45 Alfred Oteng-Yeboah, Chair, Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice, 46 Convention on Biological Diversity 47 Christian Prip, Chair, Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice, Convention 48 on Biological Diversity 49 Mario Ramos, Biodiversity Program Manager.

5 Global Environment Facility 50 Thomas Rosswall, Director, International Council for Science 51 Achim Steiner, Director General, IUCN The World Conservation Union 52 Halldor Thorgeirsson, United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change 53 Klaus T pfer, Executive Director, United Nations Environment Programme 54 Final Draft Embargoed until 30 March 3 Jeff Tschirley, Chief, Environmental Service, Research, and Training Division, Food and Agricultural 1 Organization of the United Nations 2 Ricardo Valentini, Chair, Committee on Science and Technology, United Nations Convention to 3 Combat Desertification 4 Hamdallah Zedan, Executive Secretary, Convention on Biological Diversity 5 6 At-large Members 7 Fernando Almeida, Executive President, Business Council for Sustainable Development Brazil 8 Phoebe Barnard, Global Invasive Species Programme, South Africa 9 Gordana Beltram, Counsellor to the Minister, Ministry of Environment, Slovenia 10 Delmar Blasco, Former Secretary General, Ramsar Convention on Wetlands, Spain 11 Antony Burgmans, Chairman, Unilever , The Netherlands 12 Esther Camac, Asociaci n Ix Ca Va de Desarrollo e Informaci n Indigena, Costa Rica 13 Angela Cropper (ex officio)

6 , The Cropper Foundation, Trinidad & Tobago 14 Partha Dasgupta, Faculty of Economics and Politics, University of Cambridge, 15 Jos Maria Figueres, Fundaci n Costa Rica para el Desarrollo Sostenible, Costa Rica 16 Fred Fortier, Indigenous Peoples' Biodiversity Information Network, Canada 17 Mohamed Hassan, Executive Director, Third World Academy of Sciences, Italy 18 Jonathan Lash, President, World Resources Institute, United States 19 Wangari Maathai, Vice Minister for Environment, Kenya 20 Paul Maro, University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania 21 Harold Mooney (ex officio), Professor, Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford University, 22 United States 23 Marina Motovilova, Faculty of Geography, Laboratory of Moscow Region, Russia 24 Prasad, Kerala Sastra Sahitya Parishad, India 25 Walter V.

7 Reid, Director, Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, Malaysia and United States 26 Henry Schacht, Past Chairman of the Board, Lucent Technologies, United States 27 Peter Johan Schei, Director General, The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, Norway 28 Ismail Serageldin, President, Bibliotheca Alexandrina, Egypt 29 David Suzuki, Chair, David Suzuki Foundation, Canada 30 Swaminathan, Chairman, MS Swaminathan Research Foundation, India 31 Jos Gal zia Tundisi, President, International Institute of Ecology, Brazil 32 Axel Wenblad, Vice President Environmental Affairs, Skanska AB, Sweden 33 Xu Guanhua, Minister, Ministry of Science and Technology, China 34 Muhammad Yunus, Managing Director, Grameen Bank, Bangladesh 35 Final Draft Embargoed until 30 March 4 Organizaciones de apoyo al Secretariado de la Evaluaci n de los Ecosistemas del Milenio The United Nations Environment Programme coordinates the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment Secretariat, which is based at the following partner institutions.

8 Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, Italy Institute of Economic Growth, India International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center, Mexico (until 2004) Meridian Institute, United States National Institute of Public Health and the Environment, Netherlands (until mid-2004) Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment, France UNEP-World Conservation Monitoring Centre, United Kingdom University of Pretoria, South Africa University of Wisconsin, United States World Resources Institute, United States WorldFish Center, Malaysia Final Draft Embargoed until 30 March 5 Resumen para los encargados de adoptar decisiones Todas las personas del mundo dependen por completo de los Ecosistemas de la Tierra y de los servicios que stos proporcionan, como los alimentos, el agua, la gesti n de las enfermedades, la regulaci n del clima, la satisfacci n espiritual y el placer est tico.

9 En los ltimos 50 a os, los seres humanos han transformado los Ecosistemas m s r pida y extensamente que en ning n otro per odo de tiempo de la historia humana con el que se pueda comparar, en gran medida para resolver r pidamente las demandas crecientes de alimentos, agua dulce, madera, fibra y combustible. Esta transformaci n del planeta ha aportado considerables beneficios netos para el bienestar humano y el desarrollo econ mico. Pero no todas las regiones ni todos los grupos de personas se han beneficiado de este proceso de hecho, a muchos les ha perjudicado. Adem s, s lo ahora se est n poniendo de manifiesto los verdaderos costos asociados con esos beneficios. Tres problemas principales relacionados con nuestra gesti n de los Ecosistemas del mundo est n causando ya un perjuicio importante a las personas y disminuir n significativamente los beneficios que obtenemos de los Ecosistemas a largo plazo: En primer lugar, de los servicios de los Ecosistemas examinados por esta Evaluaci n, aproximadamente el 60% (15 de 24) se est n degradando o se usan de manera no sostenible, con inclusi n del agua dulce, la pesca de captura, la purificaci n del aire y del agua, la regulaci n del clima regional y local, los riesgos naturales y las pestes.

10 Los costes totales de la p rdida y la degradaci n de estos servicios de los Ecosistemas son dif ciles de medir, pero los datos disponibles demuestran que son considerables y que van en aumento. Muchos servicios de los Ecosistemas se han degradado como consecuencia de actuaciones llevadas a cabo para aumentar el suministro de otros servicios, como los alimentos. Estas elecciones y arreglos suelen desplazar los costos de la degradaci n de un grupo de personas a otro, o traspasan los costos a las generaciones futuras. En segundo lugar, se ha establecido, aunque los datos son incompletos, que los cambios que se han hecho en los Ecosistemas est n aumentando la probabilidad de cambios no lineales en los mismos (incluidos cambios acelerados, abruptos y potencialmente irreversibles), que tienen consecuencias importantes para el bienestar humano.


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