1 Facts for life Fourth Edition With advice on: Safe Motherhood and Newborn Health Diarrhoea Child Development and Early Learning Malaria Breastfeeding HIV. Nutrition and Growth Child Protection Immunization and Produced by unicef , WHO, UNESCO, UNFPA, UNDP, UNAIDS, WFP and the World Bank, Facts for life can be found at The website will be updated regularly and links to an interactive site for posting comments, sharing experiences and materials and discussions on relevant issues. First edition published in 1989 by unicef , WHO and UNESCO. Second edition published in 1993 by unicef , WHO, UNESCO and UNFPA. Third edition published in 2002 by unicef , WHO, UNESCO, UNFPA, UNDP, UNAIDS, WFP and the World Bank. Fourth edition published in 2010 by unicef , WHO, UNESCO, UNFPA, UNDP, UNAIDS, WFP.
2 And the World Bank. Cover photo credits (from left to right): unicef /NYHQ2006-0081/Noorani unicef /NYHQ2006-2405/Markisz unicef /NYHQ2009-0716/Nesbitt unicef /NYHQ2004-1260/Pirozzi unicef /NYHQ2008-1512/Holtz unicef /NYHQ1993 0112/LeMoyne unicef /NYHQ2008-1279/Estey unicef /NYHQ2009-0690/Ramoneda United Nations Children's Fund, New York, 2010. This publication may be reproduced for educational or non-pro t purposes without permission from the copyright holder, providing acknowledgement of the source is made. unicef would appreciate receiving a copy of any publication that uses FFL as a source. Permission in writing is required to use FFL for any commercial purposes. For permission, please contact: unicef Division of Communication, Permissions 3 UN Plaza, NY, NY 10017, USA.
3 Email: ISBN: 978-92-806-4466-1. Sales number: No.: Price: $ United Nations Children's Fund 3 United Nations Plaza New York, NY 10017, USA. For any queries, please email f F a c t s fo r L i fe E d i t i o n Fourth s fo r life fact E N T S. C ONT. Foreword .. iv Purpose .. vi Structure .. vii Essential Messages .. viii Guide for Using Facts for life .. x Glossary .. 194. The topics: Timing Births .. 1 Safe Motherhood and Newborn Health ..11. Diarrhoea .. 89 Coughs, Colds Hygiene.. 109 Malaria .. 121. and More Serious Illnesses ..101. ii Facts for life Child Development Breastfeeding .. 47 Nutrition Immunization .. 77. and Early and Growth .. 61. Learning .. 29. HIV .. 129 Child Injury Emergencies: Protection .. 149 Prevention .. 163 Preparedness and Response .. 179.
4 Facts for life iii s fo r life fact WO R D. F ORE. Nearly 9 million children died in 2008 from preventable illnesses before reaching their fth birthday more than two thirds of them during the rst year of life . Millions more survive only to face diminished lives, unable to develop to their full potential. Five diseases pneumonia, diarrhoea, malaria, measles and AIDS together account for half of all deaths of children under 5 years old. Undernutrition is a contributing cause of more than one third of these deaths. It is possible to save lives and greatly reduce human suffering by expanding low-cost prevention, treatment and protection measures. The challenge is to ensure that this knowledge is shared with parents, caregivers and communities, who are the rst line of defence in protecting children from illness and harm.
5 Facts for life has been developed as a vital resource for those who need it most. It delivers essential information on how to prevent child and maternal deaths, diseases, injuries and violence. Since Facts for life was rst released in 1989, countless families and communities around the world have put its messages and guidance into practice. These efforts over the years have contributed signi cantly to progress on key global indicators such as health, education, life expectancy, and infant and maternal morbidity and mortality. Much can be achieved by empowering families and communities to adopt behaviours that improve child survival, growth, learning, development and protection, while also promoting children's and women's rights. The fourth edition of Facts for life expands on previous editions and contains several signi cant changes.
6 For example, because of the inextricable link between the health of the mother and the health of the child, a Newborn Health section has been included in the Safe Motherhood chapter. A chapter on Child Protection has also been added, which focuses on the vulnerabilities of children and the actions needed to ensure that they grow up in supportive environments in the home, school and community. iv Facts for life Facts for life provides information to help save, improve and protect children's lives, and should be shared widely with families, health workers, teachers, youth groups, women's groups, community organizations, government of cials, employers, trade unions, media, and non-governmental and faith-based organizations. Facts for life is designed to educate those who have in uence over the safety and well- being of children.
7 Through simple messages, it aims to bring life -saving knowledge to every corner of the world. Ann Veneman Margaret Chan Executive Director Director-General United Nations Children's Fund World Health Organization Ko chiro Matsuura Thoraya Ahmed Obaid Director-General Executive Director United Nations Educational, Scienti c and Cultural United Nations Population Fund Organization Helen Clark Michel Sidib . Administrator Executive Director United Nations Development Programme Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS. Josette Sheeran Graeme Wheeler Executive Director Managing Director World Food Programme The World Bank Facts for life v ose of The P u rp L I F E. C T S FOR. FA. Facts for life aims to provide families and communities with the information they need to save and improve the lives of children.
8 Parents, grandparents, other caregivers and young people can refer to this practical source of information for answers to their questions related to childbearing and getting children off to the best start in life . The challenge is to ensure that everyone knows and understands these Facts and is motivated to put them into practice. The messages contained in Facts for life are based on the latest scienti c ndings by medical and child development experts around the world. These Facts are presented in simple language so they can be understood and acted upon easily by people without a scienti c background. Doing so can save lives. The Facts for life messages are also based on human rights, particularly the Convention on the Rights of the Child and the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women.
9 The messages empower people to ful l the rights of their children. They also are aimed at enabling women, young people and children to exercise and speak out in favour of their rights. Everyone can help communicate the Facts for life messages health workers, teachers, social workers, government of cials, broadcasters, journalists, community workers, religious and political leaders, mothers, fathers, grandparents, other family members, friends, neighbours, students and people in all walks of life young and old, men and women, and girls and boys. vi Facts for life tu re of c The Str u L I F E. C T S FOR. FA. Facts for life consists of 14 chapters lled with practical information about how to ensure children's rights to survival, growth, development and well-being. The topics address pregnancy, childbirth, major childhood illnesses, child development, early learning, parenting, protection, and care and support of children.
10 Each chapter has three parts: an introduction, key messages and supporting information. THE INTRODUCTION is a brief call to action'. It summarizes the extent of the problem and the importance of taking action. The introduction aims to inspire people to get involved and share this information widely. It can be used to motivate political leaders and the mass media. THE KEY MESSAGES, addressed to parents and other caregivers, are the essence of Facts for life . They contain the essential information that people need to protect their children. The key messages are clear, brief and practical, so people can easily understand them and take the recommended action. These messages are meant to be communicated often and in various ways through multiple channels of communication.