1 Foot and mouth disease vaccination and post - vaccination monitoring Guidelines Editors Samia Metwally Susanne M nstermann Sus Authors Giancarlo Ferrari David Paton Sergio Duffy Chris Bartels Theo Knight-Jones Foot and mouth disease vaccination and post - vaccination monitoring Guidelines Editors Samia Metwally & Susanne M nstermann Authors Giancarlo Ferrari, David Paton, Sergio Duffy, Chris Bartels & Theo Knight-Jones Published by The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the World Organisation for Animal Health The designations employed and the presentation of material in this information product do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), or of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)
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4 FAO ISBN: 978-92-5-109349-8. OIE ISBN: 978-92-95108-25-7. iii Foreword The past decade has been an exciting period for foot and mouth disease (FMD) control and elimination efforts. The progressive control pathway for FMD (PCP-FMD) was developed to provide a novel stepwise methodology for a risk management and cost effective approach to FMD control. The PCP-FMD contributed signi cantly to the FAO-OIE Global Control Strategy (2012), whereby it represented the backbone for its implementation. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) continue to encourage and support their membership in making FMD.
5 Control a feasible option to reduce its impact on food security and safe trade and to contribute to improved livelihoods. Foot and mouth disease remains endemic in many countries in most parts of Asia, Africa and the Middle East. Any FMD outbreak can have potentially devastating impacts on farmers with adverse effects on livestock assets, production income, available nutrition and consumption. Vaccine is one of the main tools proven to better manage or eliminate the disease when properly applied and with desirable quality and composition. It is imperative that up-to-date information on circulating virus strains in any geographical location be known for selection of appropriate vaccine strains.
6 Typically, the cost of vaccine and vaccination represents over 90% of the total expense of FMD control so that it is essential to plan and evaluate vaccine and vaccination effectiveness to convince decision makers, including the most important farmers to maintain rigorous vaccination efforts. The guidelines herein are developed under the auspices of FAO and OIE to advise on the principles of FMD vaccine/. vaccination monitoring and best practices for vaccine application with the focus on how to evaluate and ensure the success of the vaccination programmes. These guidelines are presented from experts'.
7 Viewpoint to determine the vaccine effectiveness against the circulating FMD viruses, which directly affect multiple cloven-hoofed species and can indirectly cripple local and global commerce. These guidelines are designed to guide and assess national or sub-national vaccination programmes at various stages of PCP-FMD; and can be equally helpful for regaining FMD free status following the incursion of FMD virus in previously free countries or those where vaccination is to be discontinued, as given in the OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code. The importance of effective performance of Veterinary Services to implement FMD control programmes, particularly vaccination , is highlighted in the guidelines.
8 Given that most readers and users may have a broad background in disease management and may not necessarily be FMD specialists, the contributors have sought to provide a balance of scienti c background, methodology and practical examples. We wish to thank the editors and authors for developing these guidelines and the reviewers from many countries representing Asia, Africa and South America, and vaccine producers as well as selected FMD. specialists, including those from OIE and FAO reference centres, for their valuable contributions. Dr Juan Lubroth Dr Monique loit Chief, Animal Health Service Director General FAO OIE.
9 Foot and mouth disease vaccination and post - vaccination monitoring . Guidelines CONTENTS. FOREWORD iii .. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY.. 3. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT .. 4. INTRODUCTION .. 5. CHAPTER 1 - VACCINE ATTRIBUTES 9. Introduction .. 11. Vaccine types .. 11. Vaccine matching and criteria for selection of vaccine strains.. 11. Vaccine quality .. 12. Requirements during manufacturing process .. 12. Requirements for vaccine registration process.. 13. Considerations when purchasing vaccine .. 13. Vaccine purchase through a tender procedure .. 13. Vaccine supply to the tenderer .. 14.
10 Checklist for vaccine selection .. 14. CHAPTER 2 - VACCINE PROGRAMME, DELIVERY, SCHEDULE AND COVERAGE 15. Introduction .. 17. Objectives of a vaccination programme .. 17. Vaccine delivery .. 18. Packaging .. 18. Cold chain and logistics management .. 18. vaccination schedule .. 18. Vaccine coverage .. 19. Checklist for implementing vaccination .. 20. CHAPTER 3 - EVALUATION OF THE IMMUNE RESPONSE 23. Introduction .. 25. Use of serological tests for post - vaccination monitoring .. 27. Antibody responses to structural proteins .. 27. Correlation between structural protein antibody responses and protection.