1 GEMINI CRIMINOLOGY ONLINE REVIEW AND TRAINING CENTER. P E N E T E E A P. Dr. MANUEL V JAUDIAN, LLB. PhD. ETEEAP DIRECTOR. NOTES COMPILED AND EDITED BY: PROF. HERMOGENES MALAGAMBA. POLYGRAPHY. DEFINITION OF TERMS: Admission-is a self-incriminating statement falling short of acknowledgement of guilt. Black lie- is a kind of lie used by a person to deceive others. Blood Pressure Cuff Assembly- part of the cardio component attached on the right arm of the subject. Cardiospygmograph- a device which consist of blood pressure cuff and rubber pump and is fastened around the subject's right arm. It records the changes in pulse rate and blood pressure. Chart or Polygrams- refers to the composite record of the pneumograph, galvanograph, and cardiosphygmograph tracing recorded from one series of questions.
2 Circumstantial evidence- is a series of events upon which the guilt or innocence of a person is inferred. Confession- is the voluntary statement made by a person and given to proper authorities herein he acknowledged himself to be guilty of an offense and discloses circumstances of his felonious act of the share and participation which he had in it. Control Questions- these are answerable by NO and it is designed to produce a response from an innocent subject. Deception- is an act of deceiving or misleading usually accomplished by lying. Detection-is an act of discovering the existence, presence or fact of something hidden or obscure. Dicrotic Notch- is a short horizontal line on cardio tracing located at the middle of diastolic stern.
3 Emotion- is an acute disturbance of an individual as a whole, psychological in origin involving behavior conscious experience and visceral functions. Evidence Connecting Questions- these are intended to stimulate the subject and focus his attention on the probability of incriminating proof that would tend to establish his guilt. Examiner or Polygraph expert-is one who is conducting polygraph examination. Finger Electrode Plate- a part of the galvanograph assembly attached on the left fingers of the subject. Fear- is an emotional response to specific danger that appears to be beyond the person's defensive power. Keymograph- is a motorized component of the polygraph machine that pull or drive the chart paper under the recording pen at the rate of 6 to 12 inches per minute.
4 1. Lying- is the, with conveying or uttering of the falsehood or misleading impression the intention of affecting wrongfully the acts, opinion or affection to another. Lie detector Machine-is a device or instrument that helps determine whether the person is telling a lie or the truth. Normal Response- a tracing on the chart wherein the subject answered the irrelevant questions. Normal Tracing- a tracing of the subject which produced when no irrelevant question was asked. Galvanograph- a component part of a polygraph machine that is used to record the subjects skin resistance to a small amount of electricity. It is made up of electrodes attached to the finger of the left hand, or to the index and ring finger of the left hand or to the palmar or dorsal surface of the left hand.
5 General Question Test-consists of a series of irrelevant and relevant questions ask in a planned manner. Heredity- is the transmission of mental and physical traits from parents to offspring. Irrelevant Questions-are those query that do not relate to the matter under investigation and deals with a known fact which the subject cannot lie. Peak of Tension Test- this is answerable only by NO and this test is only made possible when there is no widespread publicity about a crime where intimate details as to the method of commission of certain facts of the case is only known by the suspect, the victim and the investigator. Keymograph- is a motorized component of the polygraph machine that pull or drive the chart paper under the recording pen at the rate of 6 to 12 inches per minute.
6 Lying- is the conveying or uttering of the falsehood or misleading impression, with the intention of affecting wrongfully the acts, opinion or affection to another. Lie detector Machine-is a device or instrument that helps determine whether the person is telling a lie or the truth. Normal Response- a tracing on the chart wherein the subject answered the irrelevant questions. Normal Tracing- a tracing of the subject which produced when no irrelevant question was asked. Pneumograph-is a device which records the changes of respiration and breathing of the subject, consisting of a ten (10) inches convoluted tubes fastened together around the subject's abdomen and chest. Polygraphy- is the scientific method of detecting deception with the use of a polygraph machine.
7 Reaction- refers to any activity aroused in an organism by a stimulus. It is an action or mental attitude induced by an external influence. Relevant Questions-are direct query having precise and specific relation with the felony. It is designed to produce emotional response in the subject's trying to craft deceptive statements. It is answerable by NO. Response- refers to any inhibition or activity of previous motion of an organism or of effector organ or part of the organism resulting from stimulation or suggestion. 2. Specific Response-is any variation or deviation from the normal tracing of the subject. Spygmomanometer-is the part of the cardio component which indicates the air pressure in the system in millimeter of mercury.
8 Stimulus-refers to the motion or force reaching the organism and excite the receptors. It is a force that produces the organism or any of its part to activity. Strong Relevant Question-refers to a verbal motivation of primary importance projected in a form of a question which overcomes the psychological excitement level and causes three major component tracing change from the subject's psychological norm. Subject or the examinee is a person undergoing a polygraph examination or test. Weak Relevant Questions- are secondary queries which are concerned with the less important elements of the offense and deals mostly on guilty knowledge and partial involvement. EARLY METHODS OF DETECTING DECEPTION.
9 Balance ordeal Boiling water ordeal Donkeys tail ordeal Red Hot Iron Ordeal Red Water Ordeal Rice Chewing Ordeal SCIENTIFIC METHODS OF DETECTING DECEPTION. Polygraph Examination Word Association Test Use of Hypnotism Use of Alcoholic Beverages Administration of Truth Serum or Narco-analysis Test SIGN AND SYMPTOMS OF EMOTIONAL TENSION. Color change Sweating Inability to look straight in the investigator's eyes Change in heart rate and pulse beat Holding of breath Dryness of mouth and throat Peculiar and unusual expression Unusual behavior KINDS OF LIE. White lie Black lie 3. Red lie Malicious lie KINDS OF LIAR. Pathological Professional MAJOR COMPONENT PARTS OF A POLYGRAPH MACHINE.
10 Cardio-sphygmograph Component Blood pressure cuff which is to the upper right arm of the subject, slightly above the brachial artery. Sphygmomanometer which is utilized to indicate the amount of air pressure inflated to the system. Pump bulb assembly which inflates air into the system, also known as an air pump it has a hose connecting the blood pressure cuff through which the blood pressure changes and passed into the recording pen. Resonance control unit which is used for reducing or increasing the amount of air pressure to reach the brass bellows (tambour) and thus reduce or increase the amplitude of pen excursions. Centering control which is used to provide adjustment of the tracing so that the composite records pattern would be on the guideline.