1 Guidance for Filtration and Air-Cleaning Systems to Protect Building Environments from Airborne Chemical, Biological, or Radiological Attacks Department of Health and Human Services Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health April 2003. ii Ordering Information To receive documents or other information about occupational safety and health topics, contact the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) at NIOSH Publications Dissemination 4676 Columbia Parkway Cincinnati, OH 45226-1998. Telephone: 1-800-35-NIOSH (1-800-356-4674). Fax: 1-513-533-8573. E-mail: or visit the NIOSH Web site at This document is in the public domain and may be freely copied or reprinted. Disclaimer: Mention of any company, product, policy, or the inclusion of any reference does not constitute endorse- ment by NIOSH.
2 DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 2003-136. iii Foreword The Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 [Public Law 91-596]. assures so far as possible every working man and woman in the Nation safe and healthful working conditions. The Act charges the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). with conducting research and making science-based recommenda- tions to prevent work-related illness, injury, disability, and death. On October 8, 2001, the President of the United States established by executive order the Office of Homeland Security (OHS), which is mandated to develop and coordinate the implementation of a com- prehensive national strategy to secure the United States from ter- rorist threats or attacks. In January 2002, the OHS formed the Interagency Workgroup on Building Air Protection under the Medical and Public Health Preparedness Policy Coordinating Committee of the OHS.
3 The workgroup included representatives from agencies throughout the Federal Government, including NIOSH, which is part of the Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. In May 2002, NIOSH, in cooperation with this workgroup, published Guidance for Protecting Building Environments from Airborne Chemical, Biological, and Radiological Attacks. This document provided build- ing owners, managers, and maintenance personnel with recommen- dations to protect public, private, and government buildings from chemical, biological, or radiological attacks. With workers and workplaces facing potential hazards associated with chemical, biological, or radiological terrorism, the occupational health and safety dimension of homeland security is iv increasingly evident. As with most workplace hazards, preventive steps can reduce the likelihood and mitigate the impact of terrorist threats.
4 This publication is the second NIOSH Guidance document aimed at protecting workplaces from these new threats. It provides detailed, comprehensive information on selecting and using filtra- tion and Air-Cleaning Systems in an efficient and cost-effective man- ner. Filtration Systems can play a major role in protecting both buildings and their occupants. Prevention is the cornerstone of public and occupational health. This document provides preventive measures that building owners and managers can implement to protect building air environments from a terrorist release of chemical, biological, or radiological contami- nants. These recommendations, focusing on Filtration and air clean- ing, are part of the process to develop more comprehensive Guidance . Working with partners in the public and private sectors, NIOSH will continue to build on this effort.
5 John Howard, Director National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health v Contents Foreword .. iii Acknowledgments.. viii Abbreviations .. x Definitions .. xii 1. Scope .. 1. 2. Introduction .. 3. 3. Filtration and Air-Cleaning Principles .. 8. Particulate Air Filtration .. 8. Gas-Phase Air Cleaning .. 15. 4. Recommendations Regarding Filter and Sorbent Selection, Operations, Upgrade, and Maintenance .. 17. Particulate Filter Selection, Installation, Use, and Upgrade .. 20. Sorbent Selection, Installation, and Use.. 26. Bypass and Infiltration .. 30. Operations and Maintenance .. 32. Note on Emerging Technologies .. 35. 5. Economic Considerations.. 37. Initial Costs .. 37. Operating Costs .. 38. Replacement Costs .. 38. Cost Data .. 39. vi Contents (continued). 6. Conclusions .. 41. 7. Key References and Bibliography.
6 43. Key References .. 43. Bibliography .. 46. Appendix A: OHS Building Air Protection Workgroup Members .. 49. Appendix B: CBR Threats .. 51. Chemical Warfare Agents .. 51. Toxic Industrial Chemicals and Materials.. 52. Biological Agents .. 54. Toxins.. 54. Radiological Hazards .. 55. Appendix C: Gas-Phase Air-Cleaning Principles .. 56. Contents (continued) vii Tables Table 1. Comparison of ASHRAE Standards and .. 14. Table 2. Mechanisms of agent vapor Filtration by ASZM-TEDA carbon.. 53. Table 3. Application of activated carbon impregnates.. 58. Figures Figure 1. Common air contaminants and their relative sizes .. 7. Figure 2. Scanning electron microscope image of a polyester-glass fiber filter .. 9. Figure 3. Four primary filter collection mechanisms .. 10. Figure 4. Fractional collection efficiency versus particle diameter for a mechanical filter.
7 11. Figure 5. ASHRAE Standard test data for a MERV 9 filter showing how collection efficiency increases as the filter loads .. 15. Figure 6. Scanning electron microscope image of activated carbon pores .. 16. Figure 7. Comparison of collection efficiency and particle size for different filters .. 21. Figure 8. Relationship among total cost, filter life, and power requirements .. 24. Figure 9. Effect of face velocity on the collection efficiency and the most penetrating particle size .. 26. Figure 10. Breakthrough curves for cyanogen chloride at various filter bed depths .. 59. viii Acknowledgments This document was produced by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) in cooperation with the White House Office of Homeland Security (OHS), Interagency Workgroup on Building Air Protection.
8 The Interagency Workgroup on Building Air Protection was formed under the Medical and Public Health Preparedness Policy Coordinating Committee (PCC) of the OHS to focus on building air protection issues associated with an airborne chemical, biological, or radiological (CBR) attack. Workgroup participants provided Guidance and direction at various times during this document's development. A list of the workgroup members is given in Appendix A. This document was written by a group of Federal Government employees under the direction of CDR. G. Scott Earnest, , , and CDR Michael G. Gressel, , Contributing authors to the document and their agency affiliations are listed below. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health CDR G. Scott Earnest, , , CDR Michael G. Gressel, , CAPT R. Leroy Mickelsen, , Ernest S.
9 Moyer, CAPT Laurence D. Reed, Department of the Army Chris J. Karwacki Robert W. Morrison David E. Tevault, ix Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Woody Delp, National Institute of Standards and Technology Andrew K. Persily, The contributions of Patrick F. Spahn of the Department of State and Joseph E. Fernback and CAPT William G. Lotz of NIOSH. are also gratefully acknowledged. Anne Votaw, Pauline Elliott, Anne Stirnkorb, and Dick Carlson of NIOSH provided editorial support, produced the camera-ready copy, and prepared the graphics. Review and preparation for printing were performed by Penny Arthur. x Abbreviations m micrometer or micron, one-millionth of a meter AC hydrogen cyanide; a blood agent*. ACGIH American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists ARI Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute ASHRAE American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials ASZM-TEDA military carbon: copper-silver-zinc-molybde- num-triethylenediamine BZ 3-quinuclidinyl benzilate; an incapacitating agent*.
10 C degrees Celsius CBR chemical, biological, or radiological CDC Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CFC chlorinated fluorocarbons CFR Code of Federal Regulations cfm cubic feet per minute CG phosgene; a choking agent*. CIF chemically impregnated fibers CK cyanogen chloride; a blood agent*. DARPA Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency EPA Environmental Protection Agency fpm feet per minute ft2 square feet GB isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate; a nerve agent (sarin)*. HAZMAT hazardous materials HD bis-(2-chloroethyl) sulfide; (mustard gas)*. HEPA high-efficiency particulate air HVAC heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning IEST Institute of Environmental Sciences and Technology km/hr kilometers per hour *Military designation. xi kW h kilowatt hours in. inch LSD d-lysergic acid diethyl amide; an incapacitating agent m/s meters per second m2 square meters m2/g square meters per gram 3.