1 ORNL/TM-2002/19 Guide to Low-Emission Boiler andCombustion Equipment SelectionC. B. OlandDOCUMENT AVAILABILITYR eports produced after January 1, 1996, are generally available free via Department of Energy (DOE) Information site produced before January 1, 1996, may be purchased by members of thepublic from the following Technical Information Service5285 Port Royal RoadSpringfield, VA 22161 Telephone 703-605-6000 (1-800-553-6847)TDD 703-487-4639 Fax 703-605-6900E-mail site are available to DOE employees, DOE contractors, Energy TechnologyData Exchange (ETDE) representatives, and International Nuclear InformationSystem (INIS) representatives from the following of Scientific and Technical Box 62 Oak Ridge, TN 37831 Telephone 865-576-8401 Fax 865-576-5728E-mail site report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of theUnited States Government.
2 Neither the United States Government nor anyagency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express orimplied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy,completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or processdisclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by tradename, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise, does not necessarily constitute orimply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United StatesGovernment or any agency thereof. The views and opinions of authors expressedherein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States Governmentor any agency TO Low-Emission Boiler AND COMBUSTIONEQUIPMENT SELECTIONC.
3 B. OlandDate Published: April 2002 Prepared for Department of EnergyOffice of Industrial TechnologiesPrepared byOAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORYOak Ridge, Tennessee 37831managed byUT-BATTELLE, LLCfor DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725 ii iiiCONTENTSPageLIST OF FIGURES ..viiLIST OF ..xiACKNOWLEDGMENTS .. xiiiEXECUTIVE SUMMARY ..xv1. SCOPE AND OBJECTIVES .. REFERENCE .. 1-32. INDUSTRIAL, COMMERCIAL, AND INSTITUTIONAL BOILERS .. TYPES OF ICI Firetube Watertube Boilers .. Other Combustion Boilers .. FUEL FEED Stokers .. stokers .. stokers .. EMISSION RATES .. Uncontrolled emissions .. Controlled emissions .. 2-263. FUELS, emissions , AND EFFICIENCY .. Fuel Oil .. Natural Gas.
4 Refuse-Derived Fuel .. Other Mixed Fuels .. Nitrogen Oxides .. Sulfur Particulate Carbon Monoxide .. Hazardous Air Pollutants .. Combustion Losses .. Boiler Losses .. 3-194. emissions STANDARDS AND COMPLIANCE ISSUES .. CLEAN AIR National Ambient Air Quality oxides .. dioxide .. monoxide .. emissions from Existing Steam Generating dioxide reduction oxides reduction program .. New Source Performance standards for new steam generating units .. standards for new municipal waste Combustion units .. Permitting Requirements .. Rain Program Permits .. Operating Permit Programs .. INFORMATION SOURCES .. PERMITTING LESSONS LEARNED.
5 4-245. EMISSION CONTROL TECHNIQUES .. PRECOMBUSTION .. Combustion .. Nitrogen Oxides Control Techniques .. flame temperature reduction .. modifications .. gas reburning .. burners .. low-NOx burners .. Sulfur Dioxide Control Techniques .. Particulate Matter Control Techniques .. Nitrogen Oxides Flue-Gas Treatment Techniques .. catalytic reduction .. noncatalytic reduction .. nitrogen oxides flue-gas treatment Sulfur Dioxide Flue-Gas Treatment Techniques .. processes .. processes .. Particulate Matter Flue-Gas Treatment Techniques .. collectors .. scrubbers .. precipitators (ESPs) .. 5-206. SELECTION BOILERS AND Combustion Equipment .. Coal-Fired Fuel-Oil-Fired and Gas-Fired Boilers.
6 Nonfossil-Fuel-Fired Boilers .. EMISSION CONTROL Equipment .. Nitrogen Oxides Reduction .. Sulfur Dioxide Reduction .. Particulate Matter Reduction .. SYSTEM CONFIGURATION .. 6-27 SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY .. S-1 GLOSSARY .. G-1 Appendix A. NEW SOURCE PERFORMANCE STANDARDS UNDER TITLE IVOF THE CLEAN AIR A-1viviiLIST OF used to present emission control options for various fuel and boilercombinations .. of HRT firetube Boiler .. of Scotch package firetube Boiler .. of firebox firetube of package watertube of field-erected watertube of watertube Boiler for burning RDF .. of watertube Boiler for burning MSW .. of watertube Boiler for burning solid fuel such as wood, biomass,or stoker of watertube Boiler for burning PC.
7 Of bubbling FBC watertube Boiler .. of circulating FBC watertube Boiler .. of pressurized FBC Boiler of tubes for A package watertube Boiler .. of tubes for D package watertube Boiler .. of tubes for O package watertube Boiler .. of cast iron Boiler .. of vertical tubeless section of underfeed, side-ash discharge stoker .. section of overfeed, water-cooled, vibrating-grate, mass-feed stoker .. section of overfeed, traveling-grate, mass-feed section of overfeed, traveling-grate, spreader stoker .. section of overfeed air-cooled, vibrating-grate, spreader section of overfeed, water-cooled, vibrating-grate, spreader stoker .. of SCR reaction of wet scrubber .. of dry of ESP .. of fabric filter or baghouse .. control options for coal-fired, stoker-fed, watertube control options for PC-fired watertube control options for coal-fired FBC watertube boilers.
8 Control options for coal-fired, stoker-fed, firetube boilers .. control options for fuel-oil-fired watertube and firetube control options for natural-gas-fired watertube and firetube control options for biomass-fired, stoker-fed, watertube boilers .. control options for biomass-fired FBC watertube boilers .. control options for biomass-fired, stoker-fed, firetube control options for RDF-fired, stoker-fed, watertube control options for RDF-fired FBC watertube boilers .. control options for RDF-fired, stoker-fed, firetube boilers .. of flue-gas treating system configurations for solid-fuel-fired 6-26viiiixLIST OF control techniques discussed in the Guide .. typically fired in ICI firetube typically fired in ICI watertube boilers .. used to identify burners.
9 Fired in boilers to generate hot water or steam .. properties for selected coals .. coals .. oil grades established by ASTM .. oxides .. of NAAQS under Title I of the CAA .. by source of NOx and SO2 in the United States .. NOx reduction regulations under Titles I and IV of the and LAER applicability and requirements .. options for SO2 emissions .. options for NOx guidance for obtaining a permit for a new air pollution for controlling emissions before Combustion .. for controlling emissions during Combustion .. for installation and operation of boilers .. for controlling emissions after Combustion .. Boiler and fuel feed system combinations .. capacity ranges for Combustion summary for NOx control techniques on ICI firetube boilers.
10 Summary for NOx control techniques on ICI watertube boilers .. summary for NOx flue-gas treatment techniques on ICI boilers .. of new source performance standards (NSPS) for electric utilitysteam-generating units .. of NSPS for industrial-commercial-institutional (ICI)steam-generating units .. of NSPS for small industrial ICI-generating of NSPS for large municipal waste Combustion units .. A-14xxiACRONYMSABMAA merican Boiler Manufacturers AssociationAELA lternative Emission LimitASMEA merican Society of Mechanical EngineersASTMA merican Society for Testing and MaterialsATWAir Toxics Web siteBACMBest Available Control MeasuresBACTBest Available Control TechnologyBFbias firingBOOS burners out of serviceBTburner tuningCAAC lean Air ActCAAAC lean Air Act Amendments of 1990 CATCC lean Air Technology CenterCEMcontinuous emission monitoringCFRCode of Federal RegulationsCHIEFC learinghouse for Inventories and Emission FactorsCIBOC ouncil of Industrial Boiler OwnersCOcarbon monoxideCO2carbon Department of EnergyEMCE mission Measurement CenterESPelectrostatic Environmental Protection AgencyEPRIE lectric Power Research InstituteFBCfluidized-bed combustionFGDflue-gas