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Herbal and Medicinal Plants Molecules Towards Treatment …

American Journal of Ethnomedicine, 2015, Vol. 2, No. 2 ISSN: 2348-9502. Available online at American Journal of Ethnomedicine Herbal and Medicinal Plants Molecules Towards Treatment of Cancer: A Mini Review Lakshmi , Bhanu , Venkata Subbaiah Kotakadi*2 and Josthna. P.*1. 1. Department of Biotechnology, Sri Padmavathi Mahila University, Tirupati- 517502. 2. DST PURSE Centre, Sri Venkateswara University Tirupati-517502. *Corresponding author e-mail: ABSTRACT. Cancer is one of the leading and most fatal diseases in the present decade, every year millions of people die because of various types of cancers. Many aspects relate to the cause of disease besides heredity, food habits, smoking, nutritional behaviours, radiation etc. The successful cancer therapy till now has been under research, only chemotherapy and radiation treatments are at times successful and much times toxic and lethal. Alternative and less toxic medication is very much in need Towards the disease, the use of concepts of Herbal medicine with knowledge of Ayurveda could present better drug leads Towards the inhibitory Treatment of Cancer.

American Journal of Ethnomedicine _____ ISSN: 2348-9502 Page 137 medicinal plants was put forward, reason to

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1 American Journal of Ethnomedicine, 2015, Vol. 2, No. 2 ISSN: 2348-9502. Available online at American Journal of Ethnomedicine Herbal and Medicinal Plants Molecules Towards Treatment of Cancer: A Mini Review Lakshmi , Bhanu , Venkata Subbaiah Kotakadi*2 and Josthna. P.*1. 1. Department of Biotechnology, Sri Padmavathi Mahila University, Tirupati- 517502. 2. DST PURSE Centre, Sri Venkateswara University Tirupati-517502. *Corresponding author e-mail: ABSTRACT. Cancer is one of the leading and most fatal diseases in the present decade, every year millions of people die because of various types of cancers. Many aspects relate to the cause of disease besides heredity, food habits, smoking, nutritional behaviours, radiation etc. The successful cancer therapy till now has been under research, only chemotherapy and radiation treatments are at times successful and much times toxic and lethal. Alternative and less toxic medication is very much in need Towards the disease, the use of concepts of Herbal medicine with knowledge of Ayurveda could present better drug leads Towards the inhibitory Treatment of Cancer.

2 Nature shows plethora of Medicinal Plants with anticancer and anti- oxidant activities which may suppress the disease completely. The search for cancer drugs from natural sources started in late 1960s, lead to discoveries of vincristine, vinblastine, campthothecin and taxol. This review certainly focuses on the Herbal medicine from natural products for the discovery of new drug leads Towards the cancer Treatment . Keywords- Ayurveda, Cancer, Chemotherapy, Herbal medicine, Potent compounds(Secondary metabolites). INTRODUCTION medicine when compared to other sources of drug discoveries had contributed many Natural products especially Plants have novel therauptic compounds for preventive been used for the Treatment of various and curative medicine. Secondary diseases promisingly from the decades by metabolites like polyphenols, terpenes and knowledge of Ayurveda in our country. In alkaloids have been reported to possess developing countries Herbal medicine is the antimutagenic and anticancer properties in source of new discoveries for the new drug many studies1.

3 Several researches on cancer leads Towards various healthcare issues and drugs and discovery of new lead Molecules synthesis of new formulations. Traditional Towards anticancer activity by using Page 136 American Journal of Ethnomedicine _____ ISSN: 2348-9502. Medicinal Plants was put forward, reason to severe toxicity on normal tissues9,10. The explain- as Medicinal Plants are reservoirs of search for cancer drugs from natural sources antioxidants and possess no toxicity as started with discovery of Podophyllotoxin in compared to the modern drugs; concept of late 1960s, further lead to discoveries of combining Ayurveda with advanced drug vincristine, vinblastine, campthothecin and discovery may bring some lead compounds taxol11. Nature counting more than 1000. Towards various human sufferings. species of plant varieties which possess significant anti-cancer properties. Taxol, one Natural lead Molecules Towards Treatment of of the most outstanding agents, has been Cancer found beneficial in Treatment of refractory Cancer is one of the most life ovarian, breast and other cancers, threatening diseases and possess many Podophyllotoxin, synthetic modification of health hazard in both developed and this molecule led to the development of developing countries2, characterized by Etoposide, known to be effective for small irregular proliferation of cells.

4 Every cell cancers, of the lungs and testes12. The biological change can be seen when a discovery of medicinally important herbs normal cell progresses to cancerous one. and their mechanism of action would Since many treatments are available for provide an alternative and effective cancer therapy still cancer is the 2nd leading Treatment Towards the cancer prevention. cause of death in the globe, Chemotherapy Since decades plethora of drugs have been and modern drugs for Treatment of cancer developed from potent compounds which reported more side effects in the patients are isolated from Medicinal Plants . The treated. Every year, millions of people are process of drug discovery and development diagnosed with cancer, leading to death3. includes three main following research Cancer kills about 3500 million people approaches annually all over the world; it accounts more than 2-3% of the annual deaths recorded (1) Bioactivity- based on mechanism of worldwide4.

5 Treatment of Cancer is specific action-directed isolation and somewhat successful with chemopreventive characterization of active compounds, agents but usage is left against risk because (2) Rational drug design - involves of their toxicity5,6. Smoking, dietary modification and synthesis of analog, and imbalances, hormones and chronic (3) Mechanism of action studies. infections leading to chronic inflammation accounts high casuals for cancer disease. In Traditional medicine and knowledge view of serious side effects of of Ayurveda help in the discovery of new chemotheraphy and radiation Treatment for drug leads with high activity and low cancer, there should be immediate search for toxicity for cancer therapy, initial research alternative and safer methods of treatment7. focuses on the isolation of bioactive lead As age old saying always prevention is compounds, chemical modification and better than cure, cancers can be preventive improving other pharmacological profiles13.

6 By proper dietary habits, saying no to The use of traditional medicine for Treatment tobacco, Treatment of inflammatory diseases of various diseases is continued in the Indian effectively, and taking nutritional sub-continent with greatear botanical supplements that aid immune functions8. diversity. Ethno historical accounts shows Chemotherapy, presently the only major that Medicinal Plants have been used as a Treatment modality used for the control of remedy for various human ailments, the advanced stages of malignancies, exhibits reason of using these Plants is that they are Page 137. American Journal of Ethnomedicine _____ ISSN: 2348-9502. reservoirs of potent chemical compounds times. Medicinal Plants relieve and treat which acts as a curative medicine with fewer cancer by making use of the compounds side effects. Over the past decade, healthcare naturally present with antioxidant, system is all around the Herbal medicine and anticancer activities that are known to gained global importance, making an impact inhibit or kill carcinogenic cells, Some on both world health and international Plants may contain properties that naturally trade14.

7 Due to the low economic rate of the have the ability to prevent the spread or risk majority of population in developing of developing various forms of cancer. countries and high cost of Western Some examples of Plants that may be used medicine, Herbal medicine has a long and for cancer Treatment are discussed with their uninterrupted history of continuous usage by respective advancements are listed in below a large proportion of the population in the Table No. 2. developing countries15,16. In addition from their cultural and spiritual points Herbal Ayurvedic Concept of Cancer medicines are more acceptable in these Cancer described as granthi and countries. Cancer would be probably the arbuda in Charaka and Sushruta Samhita most important genetic disease to carry out by two great Indians and explained the Treatment with Medicinal plants16. See fig. disease conditions reasons responsible 1. behind the cause of cancer19,20.

8 Charaka and Microtubulin assembly into coiled Sushrutha explained cancer as inflammatory spiral aggregrates induced by self- or devoid of inflammation, based on the association of tubulin is under the influence doshas involved21. Three doshas Vata, Pitta and mode of action of Vincristine 17. and Kapha in body are responsible for Etoposide is a topoisomerase II inhibitor disease and the balanced coordination of causes DNA breaks, whereas topoisomerase these doshas in body, mind and I is inhibited by the action of Docetaxel18. consciousness is the definition of health in Drugs made of synthetic chemistry and use Ayurveda 22,23. A morbid condition arises in of technological combinatorial chemistry in cancer is the state where all three major the synthesis of new leads , still today drugs body humors lose mutual coordination and it derived from natural product make an is explained as Tridoshicarbudas in enormous contribution to drug discovery.

9 Ayurveda24. In ayurveda the concept of Nature is an attractive source of new Neoplasm shows various clinical symptoms. therapeutic candidate compounds as a varous types of cancers were much earlier tremendous chemical diversity is found in classified in to three groups in ayurveda. millions of species of Plants , several plant- The three groups divided in ayurveda based derived compounds are currently on their occurance. successfully employed in cancer Treatment . Group I: malignancies which includes Plants Used for Cancer Treatment sarcomas, leukaemia, oral cancer, and The annual deaths across the globe incurable or malignant ulcers. according to American cancer society Group II: Inflammatory conditions that can accounts for more than 3 million cancer be altered to a probable malignancies, such deaths, ongoing research is being done as ulcers and growths under certain throughout the world to seek out effective influences like radiation, change in dietary treatments for cancer, Chemotheraphy habits, stress, smoking etc.

10 Examples of which includes the high risk dosage of these are growth of lips, incurable thyroid chemical drugs leading to high toxic cases at Page 138. American Journal of Ethnomedicine _____ ISSN: 2348-9502. tumour, abdominal tumours like carcinomas 2. Izevbigie EB Discovery of water-soluble of the stomach and liver or lymphomas. anticancer agents (edotides) from a Group III: Diseases in which there is a vegetable found in Benin City, Nigeria. Exp possibility of malignancy, such as incurable Biol Med (Maywood), 2003; 228:293-298. jaundice, intreatable 3. Om Prakash, Amit Kumar, Pawan Kumar, and Ajeet, Anticancer Potential of Plants and Natural Products: A Review. American CONCLUSION Journal of Pharmacological Sciences 1, no. 6 2013; 104-115. doi: Medicinal Plants are rich sources of 4. Krishnamurthi K. Screening of natural Herbal properties contributing in the products for anticancer and antidiabetic discovery of new drugs Towards various properties.


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