1 E c o n o m i c &. S o c i a l Indicators of Sustainable development : Guidelines and Methodologies A f f a i r s October 2007. Third Edition Published by the united nations ISBN 978-92-1-104577-2. Sales No: 07-53189 December 2007 2,300 united nations Indicators of Sustainable development : Guidelines and Methodologies Third Edition united nations New York, 2007. DESA. The Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the united nations Secretariat is a vital interface between global policies in the economic, social and environmental spheres and national action. The Department works in three main interlinked areas: (i) it compiles, generates and analyses a wide range of economic, social and environmental data and information on which States Members of the united nations draw to review common problems and to take stock of policy options; (ii) it facilitates the negotiations of Member States in many intergovernmental bodies on joint course of action to address ongoing or emerging global challenges.
2 And (iii) it advises interested Governments on the ways and means of translating policy frameworks developed in united nations conferences and summits into programmes at the country level and, through technical assistance, helps build national capacities. Note The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat of the united nations concerning the legal status of any country or territory or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitations of its frontiers. The term country as used in the text of the present report also refers, as appropriate, to territories or areas.
3 The designations of country groups in the text and the tables are intended solely for statistical or analytical convenience and do not necessarily express a judgement about the stage reached by a particular country or area in the development process. Mention of the names of firms and commercial products does not imply the endorsement of the united nations . Symbols of united nations documents are composed of capital letters combined with figures. united nations publication Sales No. ISBN 978-92-1-104577-2. Copyright united nations , 2007. All rights reserved Printed by the united nations , New York iii Contents Foreword .. 1. I. Introduction .. 3. II.
4 CSD Indicators of Sustainable development .. 5. A. History .. 5. B. Latest review of the CSD Indicators of Sustainable development .. 6. III. Overview of the revised CSD Indicators of Sustainable development .. 9. A. General description .. 9. B. Addressing thematic linkages .. 14. C. Relationship between MDG Indicators and CSD Indicators of Sustainable development .. 21. D. CSD Indicators of Sustainable development , Agenda 21 and the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation .. 27. IV. Applying CSD Indicators of Sustainable development .. 29. A. indicator selection .. 29. B. Adapting CSD Indicators of Sustainable development for national sets .. 32. C.
5 Indicators as tools for measuring Sustainable development processes at the national level .. 35. V. A word on indicator frameworks .. 39. A. Driving force-state-response frameworks .. 39. B. Issue- or theme-based frameworks .. 40. C. Capital frameworks .. 40. D. Accounting frameworks .. 41. E. Aggregated Indicators .. 43. F. Other indicator approaches .. 44. VI. Description of CSD Indicators of Sustainable development .. 47. A. Poverty .. 47. B. Governance .. 50. C. Health .. 51. D. Education .. 55. E. Demographics .. 57. F. Natural hazards .. 59. G. Atmosphere .. 60. iv Indicators of Sustainable development : Guidelines and Methodologies Third Edition H.
6 Land .. 62. I. Oceans, seas and coasts .. 66. J. Freshwater .. 69. K. Biodiversity .. 72. L. Economic development .. 75. M. Global economic partnership .. 82. N. Consumption and production patterns .. 85. Appendix 1. Agenda 21 Table of Contents .. 91. Appendix 2. Johannesburg Plan of Implementation .. 93.. Foreword This publication presents the third set of Indicators of Sustainable development and provides suggestions on how to adapt them to national conditions and pri- orities. It benefits from the active participation of and excellent collaboration with, a wide range of governments, international organizations, academic insti- tutions, non-governmental organizations and individual experts.
7 The indica- tors are a follow-up to the two earlier sets prepared under the work programme on Indicators of Sustainable development approved by the Commission on Sustainable development in 1995. These earlier sets were published in 1996. and 2001. We hope that countries will find the publication useful whenever they are reviewing their existing Indicators or developing new Indicators to measure progress towards nationally defined goals for Sustainable development . The Indicators of Sustainable development presented here reflect the valuable expe- riences of countries and international organizations over the past fifteen years since the adoption of Agenda 21 in Rio de Janeiro.
8 With this publication, we also hope to further the momentum at the national and international level to develop and apply Sustainable development Indicators . This will help the understanding of the various dimensions of Sustainable development and their complex interactions and the facilitation of policy decisions aimed at achiev- ing Sustainable development goals. On behalf of the united nations , I would like to thank all countries, organizations, agencies and individuals that have contributed their time and effort to make this publication possible. JoAnne DiSano Director Division for Sustainable development . I. Introduction Indicators perform many functions.
9 They can lead to better decisions and more effective actions by simplifying, clarifying and making aggregated information available to policy makers. They can help incorporate physical and social sci- ence knowledge into decision-making, and they can help measure and calibrate progress toward Sustainable development goals. They can provide an early warn- ing to prevent economic, social and environmental setbacks. They are also useful tools to communicate ideas, thoughts and values. The united nations Conference on Environment and development in 1992 recognized the important role that Indicators could play in helping coun- tries make informed decisions concerning Sustainable development .
10 At the international level, the Commission on Sustainable development (CSD). approved its Work Programme on Indicators of Sustainable development in 1995. The first two sets of CSD Indicators of Sustainable development (hence- forth CSD Indicators ) were developed between 1994 and 2001. They have been extensively tested, applied and used in many countries as the basis for the devel- opment of national Indicators of Sustainable development . The new revised edition of the CSD Indicators has been developed in response to decisions by the CSD and the World Summit on Sustainable development in 2002, which encouraged further work on Indicators at the country level in line with national conditions and priorities and invited the international community to support efforts of developing countries in this regard.