1 Industrialization and Nationalism 1700 1920. C h a p t e r 21. The Industrial Revolution 1700 1900. chapter 22. Life in the Industrial Age 1800 1900. chapter 23. Reforms, Revolutions, and War 1800 1900. chapter 24. Nationalism in Europe 1800 1920. chapter 25. The Age of Imperialism Themes The Industrial Revolution changed the economic systems of many countries and led to the development of a World economy. New inventions and technologies caused changes in how people lived, worked, and The Blanzy Mine, by Bonhomme, c. 1860. traveled and set the stage for the modern technological age. Women and children work in a Nationalism and imperialism in Europe coal-sifting room in France during affected governments and citizens around the World as European countries competed the Industrial Revolution. for colonies and resources.
2 629. C HAPTER. 21 1700 1900. The Industrial Revolution The Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment led people to develop new ways of doing things. Among these new ways were processes and machines for raising crops, making cloth, and other jobs. These developments led to dramatic changes in industry and the World of work. Because so much changed, this era is called the Indus- trial Revolution. It began in Great Britain and then spread to other parts of the World ..# .#. North Carolina Standards Social Studies Objectives The Ironworks, by Adolph von Menzel, 1875. Assess the degree to which discoveries, innovations, and technologies have accelerated change;. Examine the causes and effects of Industrialization and cite its major costs and benefits. Language Arts Objective Demonstrate the ability to read, listen to and view a variety of increasingly complex print and non-print informa- tion texts appropriate to grade level and course by providing textual evidence to support understanding of and reader's response to text.
3 TIME LINE. 1701 1764 1793 1802. Jethro Tull invents James Hargreaves Eli Whitney Richard Trevithick the seed drill. develops the introduces the builds the first steam chapter spinning jenny. cotton gin. locomotive. Events 1700 1750 1800. World 1762 1776 The Thirteen 1815. Events Catherine the Great colonies declare their Napoleon is defeated becomes czarina of Russia. independence. at Battle of Waterloo. 630 chapter 21. History's Impact video program Watch the video to understand the impact of the Industrial Revolution. Reading like aHistorian The painting shown here is of workers in a German factory flattening a sheet of hot iron. The artist, 1848 1871. Marx and Engels publish Adoph von Menzel, visited factories like this one so he Trade unions are The Communist legalized in Britain. could reproduce the details correctly.
4 Manifesto. Analyzing Visuals How many different tasks or activities can you see in the painting? How do you 1850 think the artist felt about the industry pictured? Explain your answer. 1848. Revolutions occur See Skills Handbook, p. H26. throughout Europe. the industrial revolution 631. Geography Starting Points North Sea Interactive HRW-HS World History Resources of Great Britain, 1800 w8nafs_indmap002ba Interior of a mine in South Staffordshire Natural Resources of Great Britain, Starting Points Locator FINAL 7/31/06. Glasgow 55 N Newcastle upon Tyne Coal had been a useful fuel for cen- turies. In the 1700s, mines started 5 E. producing large amounts of coal. Kingston Irish Bradford Leeds upon Hull Sea Manchester IRELAND. River Liverpool Sheffield t Tren Nottingham River Scene with Overshot Mill, by Charles Towne, 1833.
5 Birmingham Se NETHERLANDS. ver n R. R. GREAT. on BRITAIN. Av Th am e s London .BKPS DBOBM. $PBM mFME Bristol 5 W. *SPO PSF. BELGIUM. Throughout Great Britain, rushing l hanne streams could be used to power 50 N )38 )4 8 PSME )JTUPSZ English C. X OBGT@JOENBQ DB waterwheels like the one shown here. 0 50/BUVSBM 3 FTPVSDFT PG (SFBU #SJUBJO D . 100 Miles 0 . 0 50 4 UBSUJOH 1 PJOUT -FHFOE. 100 Kilometers FRANCE. '*/"- o . Lambert conformal conic projection In 1800, much of 1. Analyze What do you think is the con- Europe's economy was still based on farming. nection between canals and rivers and Listen to History Times were changing, though, particularly industry? Go online to listen to an in Great Britain. There, fewer people were 2. Predict Based on the map, where do explanation of the starting working on farms, and more were working in you think Great Britain's first industries points for this chapter .
6 Manufacturing. Great Britain's natural resources, grew? such as coal and iron, were major factors in the HRW-HS World History Keyword: SHL IND. growth of British industry. w8nafs_indmap002a Natural Resources of Great Britain, 632 chapter 21 Starting Points Map FINAL 7/31/06. Section 1 A New Kind of Revolution Before You Read Main Idea Reading Focus Key Terms and People In the 1700s, conditions 1. Why did the Industrial Industrial Revolution in Great Britain led to the Revolution begin in enclosure movement rapid growth of the textile Great Britain? factors of production industry, which in turn led to cottage industry 2. How did Industrialization huge changes in many other factory cause a revolution in the industries. Industrialization production of textiles? Jethro Tull 3. How did steam power the Richard Arkwright Industrial Revolution?
7 James Watt 4. Where did Industrialization Robert Fulton spread beyond Great Britain? How did one farmer's frustration help start a revolution? Jethro Tull From Muscle to Machines had never planned to be a farmer. He had trained to be a lawyer but inherited the family farm. While running the farm, Tull was often annoyed by the work- ers' sloppy habits. For example, when planting, they wasted seeds by throwing big handfuls onto the ground. Sure that the job could be done more efficiently, Tull invented a horse- drawn machine that planted seeds one by one. He called it a seed drill. Without knowing it, Tull was helping to start a revolution an agricultural revolution that would bring changes to nearly all aspects of life. A Revolution in Great Britain For centuries, workers During the 1700s changes in technology began that had used muscle power would transform the World .
8 These changes were based to farm the land. on a shift in how people worked. For centuries people had used human and animal power as their main energy sources. Then they began to develop water and steam The Mowers, by Sir George Clausen, 1891. power to drive new machines and perform countless tasks. This era, when the use of power-driven machin- ery was developed, is called the Industrial Revolution. For several reasons, it started in Great Britain. Factors for Success By the 1700s several factors had come together to set the scene for the development of industry in Great Britain. Those factors included a range of political and economic events. the industrial revolution 633. Exploration and colonialism Great Britain Agricultural Factors Much of the research claimed colonies around the World that pro- and development took place on farms as some vided vast amounts of raw materials, such as of Britain's so-called gentlemen farmers began cotton fiber.
9 In addition, the colonies became to experiment with agricultural methods. new markets for British goods. (However, Jethro Tull was among these wealthier farm- India's own textile industry was severely ers. In about 1701 Tull invented the seed drill, damaged by British competition.) a machine that made planting grain much Seapower Britain could bring in raw materi- more efficient. als and send finished goods around the World Farmers experimented with other aspects because it had the largest, most powerful of agriculture also. For example, they improved navy and merchant fleet in the World . livestock breeding methods to raise healthier Political stability Although Great Britain animals. Better varieties of food crops, such as fought wars in Canada and North America potatoes, were developed. These improvements during the 1700s, at home the country was increased Britain's food supply.
10 Since more food at peace, and commerce thrived. can support more people, Britain's population Government support Parliament passed laws grew rapidly. that favored business, helping the country Another agricultural development had compete successfully against other nations. mixed results. Wealthy landowners could buy Growth of private investment Private busi- up fields that had previously been shared by nesses funded experiments for creating rich and poor farmers alike. The new landown- better products what we would call ers combined the small fields to create large research and development today. farms and fenced them, a transformation H ISTORY. and Economics Factors of Production The basic factors of production are the essential World 's supply of the pre- elements that a nation needs to achieve eco- cious fuel.