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# INTRODUCTION TO LAND NAVIGATION - University of Akron

Section5 Key Points1 Understanding Azimuths2 Converting Azimuths 3 Determining Elevation 4 Calculating Distance on a MapINTRODUCTION TOLAND NAVIGATIONT actics andTechniques Track8420010_TT5_p198-213 8/19/08 10:59 AM Page 198 Tactics andTechniques TrackIntroductionTo accomplish your mission, you must be in the right place at the right time. Being inthe right place requires you to navigate well. Knowing how to read a map is onething knowing how to use a map to navigate requires that you understand how touse azimuths, elevation, and map distance. In the previous section, you learned how to identify and interpret topographicsymbols, colors, contour lines, and marginal information found on a military map. Youalso learned about the military grid reference system and how to plot grid coordinatesusing a military map and protractor. This section will expand your map-reading skills and introduce you to how themilitary navigates using a map, compass, and protractor.

Move the lens (the rear sight) to the rearmost position. This allows the dial to float freely. 2. Place your thumb through the thumb loop, form a steady base with your third and fourth fingers, and extend your index finger along the side of the compass. 3. Place the thumb of your other hand between the lens (rear sight) and the bezel

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### Transcription of INTRODUCTION TO LAND NAVIGATION - University of Akron

1 Section5 Key Points1 Understanding Azimuths2 Converting Azimuths 3 Determining Elevation 4 Calculating Distance on a MapINTRODUCTION TOLAND NAVIGATIONT actics andTechniques Track8420010_TT5_p198-213 8/19/08 10:59 AM Page 198 Tactics andTechniques TrackIntroductionTo accomplish your mission, you must be in the right place at the right time. Being inthe right place requires you to navigate well. Knowing how to read a map is onething knowing how to use a map to navigate requires that you understand how touse azimuths, elevation, and map distance. In the previous section, you learned how to identify and interpret topographicsymbols, colors, contour lines, and marginal information found on a military map. Youalso learned about the military grid reference system and how to plot grid coordinatesusing a military map and protractor. This section will expand your map-reading skills and introduce you to how themilitary navigates using a map, compass, and protractor.

2 You will learn what anazimuth is and how to convert azimuths in order to navigate using a compass andmap. You will also learn how to determine the elevation of the terrain by analyzing thecontour lines and contour interval data from the marginal information on a militarymap. Lastly, you will learn to compute straight-line and road distance using the scale inthe margin of the military map. Coupled with your learning from your orienteeringand map reading lessons, you will have the basic knowledge to navigate from onepoint to another and arrive safely at your destination. In the following vignette, COL John Zierdt Jr., commander of the 1st SupportCommand during the first Gulf War, remembers how a group of Soldiers paid a seriousprice when they decided to rely on familiarity rather than put into practice basic map-reading and land- NAVIGATION skill required of all Soldiers. Captured During Desert StormThe driver had been on a particular route two or three times and thought heknew where he was going.

3 Then instead of turning left, he kept going even saw the water on their right, which was a dead giveaway that theywere going north rather than west. There were two HETs [heavy trucks] followingeach other. The guy, the one that was eventually captured, was in the leadvehicle, and stopped. And the guys behind him said, You re going the wrongway and we need to turn around. He said, I am not. He says, I m goingstraight. You can follow me or turn around if you want. So, they kept going straight. The next thing you knew they were in the middleof a firefight. The second vehicle got turned around in time [and] got out ofthere; the [first] vehicle got stuck and didn t get turned around, and the two ofthem got captured. Department of the Army, XVIII Airborne Corps and US Army Center of Military History INTRODUCTION to Land NAVIGATION 1998420010_TT5_p198-213 8/19/08 10:59 AM Page 199 Understanding AzimuthsEverything in land NAVIGATION begins with an azimuth.

4 An azimuth is a horizontal anglemeasured clockwise by degrees or mils between a reference direction and a line to anobserved or designated point. There are three base directions or azimuths: true, grid, Army uses azimuths to express direction. Direction is determined from yourstart point, or where you are, outward toward your desired destination, or your intendedtarget. Because you use north (0 or 360 degrees) as your base line, 270 degrees away fromnorth will always be due of yourself as standing in the middle of a Nebraska cornfield. You are facingnorth. The horizon stretches around you in a great 360-degree circle. If you travel anazimuth of zero degrees or 360 degrees or due north you will wind up in you turn to your right and travel on an azimuth of 90 degrees due east you willwind up in the Atlantic Ocean, probably off the coast of New azimuth of 180 degrees due south will take you into Mexico, and an azimuthof 270 degrees due west will take you to the Pacific, just off the coast of a Grid Azimuth Using a ProtractorThere are two ways you can determine an azimuth.

5 You can use a map to determine agrid azimuth, or you can use a compass to determine a magnetic azimuth. Regardless ofthe technique, you will learn in this chapter how to convert a grid azimuth to a magneticazimuth and a magnetic azimuth to a grid azimuth. You will first use a map and learnhow to determine a grid azimuth. The steps in this process should be very familiar if youhave ever taken a geometry begin, select a start point on the map. Mark it as point A. Identify an end point onyour map. Mark it as point B. Using the edge of your protractor, draw a straight pencilline between points A and B. The line is your azimuth. Now you must determine the gridazimuthof that line the angle between the line and grid you lay your protractor down on your map, make sure you place it right sideup; verify this by checking to see that the writing on the protractor is not backward. If yourprotractor is wrong side up, you will get grid azimuths that are 180 degrees off from the200 SECTION 5 The terms ThinkingIf the drivers of the two vehicles had looked at and oriented their maps, whatmight have told them they were headed in the wrong direction?