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Investigation of Occupational Accidents and Diseases

ILO Investigation of Occupational Accidents and Diseases : A Practical Guide for Labour Inspectors Labour Administration, Labour Inspection and Occupational Safety and Health Branch Governance and Tripartism Department International Labour OfficeRoute des Morillons 4CH-1211 Geneva 22 SwitzerlandTel. +41 22 799 67 15 Fax. +41 22 7996878 Email: Occupational Accidentsand DiseasesA Practical Guide for Labour InspectorsInvestigation of Occupational Accidents and DiseasesA Practical Guide for Labour InspectorsThe ILO estimates that every day approximately 6,300 people die and 860,000 people are injured or suffer ill health due to Occupational acci-dents and Diseases .

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1 ILO Investigation of Occupational Accidents and Diseases : A Practical Guide for Labour Inspectors Labour Administration, Labour Inspection and Occupational Safety and Health Branch Governance and Tripartism Department International Labour OfficeRoute des Morillons 4CH-1211 Geneva 22 SwitzerlandTel. +41 22 799 67 15 Fax. +41 22 7996878 Email: Occupational Accidentsand DiseasesA Practical Guide for Labour InspectorsInvestigation of Occupational Accidents and DiseasesA Practical Guide for Labour InspectorsThe ILO estimates that every day approximately 6,300 people die and 860,000 people are injured or suffer ill health due to Occupational acci-dents and Diseases .

2 These figures, while astounding, do not convey the pain and suffering of the global workforce and their families or the global economic losses to enterprises and not forgetting that Occupational Accidents and work-related Diseases are preventable it is also essential that lessons are learned when they occur. Effective investigations will determine the immediate, underlying and root causes and identify appropriate risk control measures that can be implemented in order to reduce the likelihood of guide has been developed in conjunction with, the ILO International Training Centre in order to provide information, guidance and a methodol- ogy for labour inspectors and others involved in investigations to ensure that effective investigations can be conducted.

3 Investigationof Occupational Accidentsand Diseases A Practical Guide for Labour InspectorsCopyright International Labour Organization 2015 First published 2015 Publications of the International Labour Office enjoy copyright under Protocol 2 of the Universal Copyright Convention. Neverthe-less, short excerpts from them may be reproduced without authorization, on condition that the source is indicated. For rights of reproduction or translation, application should be made to ILO Publications (Rights and Permissions), International Labour Office, CH-1211 Geneva 22, Switzerland, or by email: The International Labour Office welcomes such , institutions and other users registered with reproduction rights organizations may make copies in accordance with the licences issued to them for this purpose.

4 Visit to find the reproduction rights organization in your of Occupational Accidents and Diseases : A practical guide for labour inspectorsInternational Labour Office. - Geneva: ILO, 2014 ISBN: 978-92-2-129419-1 (print)ISBN: 978-92-2-129420-7 (web pdf)International Labour Office Occupational accident / Occupational disease / labour inspection / reporting system / data collecting / case study available in French:Enqu tes sur les Accidents du travail et les maladies professionnelles Guide pratique l intention des inspecteurs du travail 978-92-2-229419-0 (print); 978-92-2-229420-6 (web pdf) Spanish: Investigaci n de accidentes del trabajo y enfermedades profesionales Gu a pr ctica para inspectores del trabajo978-92-2-329419-9 (print).

5 978-92-2-329420-5 (web pdf) Arabic:978-92-2-629419-6 (print); 978-92-2-629420-2 (web pdf) Vietnamese: i u tra tai n n lao ng v b nh ngh nghi p H ng d n th c h nh cho thanh tra lao ng978-92-2-829419-4 (print); 978-92-2-829420-0 (web pdf) ILO Cataloguing in Publication DataThe designations employed in ILO publications, which are in conformity with United Nations practice, and the presentation of material therein do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the International Labour Office concerning the legal status of any country, area or territory or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its responsibility for opinions expressed in signed articles, studies and other contributions rests solely with their authors.

6 And publication does not constitute an endorsement by the International Labour Office of the opinions expressed in them. Reference to names of firms and commercial products and processes does not imply their endorsement by the International Labour Office, and any failure to mention a particular firm, commercial product or process is not a sign of publications and electronic products can be obtained through major booksellers or ILO local offices in many countries, or direct from ILO Publications, International Labour Office, CH-1211 Geneva 22, Switzerland. Catalogues or lists of new publications are available free of charge from the above address, or by email: our website: and photocomposed in Switzerland CPG Printed in Switzerland ATA ContentsAbbreviations.

7 IVDefinitions ..IVPreface ..V1. Introduction ..1 What is an Investigation ? ..1 What makes a good Investigation ? ..2 What gets investigated? ..52. Skills required by investigators ..7 Interviewing skills ..8 Questioning witnesses ..103. Main stages of an accident Investigation ..13 Preparations before starting the Investigation ..13 Gathering information ..15 Arrival at the site ..19 Prior to leaving the site ..20 Analysing the information ..21 Identifying preventive/risk control measures ..25 Implementing an action plan ..26 Completing the report/documenting the information.

8 274. accident Investigation checklist ..295. Investigation report ..33 Case study: Employee injured while operating a circular saw bench ..37 Step 1: Actions to take upon receiving notification of the accident ..37 Step 2: Gathering information ..38 Step 3: Analysing the information ..43 Step 4: Identifying preventive/risk control measures ..45 Step 5: Implementing an action plan ..46 Step 6: Investigation report ..46 IVInvestigation of Occupational Accidents and DiseasesAbbreviationsILO International labour OrganizationOSH Occupational safety and healthDefinitionsOccupational accident An occurrence arising out of, or in the course of, work which results in a fatal or non-fatal injury, a fall from a height or contact with moving disease Covers any disease contracted as a result of an exposure to hazards arising from a work activity asthma resulting from exposure to wood dust or chemical compounds.

9 Dangerous occurrence A readily identifiable event, as defined under national laws and regulations, with the potential to cause an injury or disease to persons at work or to the public, a crane toppling over that results only in damage to An event, not necessarily defined under national laws and regula-tions, that could have caused harm to persons at work or to the public, a brick that falls off scaffolding but does not hit this guide, any reference to an accident Investigation may refer to any of the above unless specifically Anything with the potential to cause harm, such as chemicals, electricity, work on ladders, an unguarded machine, an open drawer, demanding and stressful work, The risk is the chance, high or low, that somebody could be harmed by these and other hazards, together with an indication of how serious the harm could be.

10 VPrefaceIn 2014 the International Labour Organization (ILO) estimated that Occupational Accidents and work-related Diseases cause over million fatalities per year, of which over 350,000 result from Occupational Accidents and close to 2 million from work-related Diseases . In addition to these fatalities, it is estimated that there were over 313 million non-fatal Occupational Accidents (requiring at least four days of absence from work) in 2010. These figures, while astounding, do not convey the pain and suffering of the global workforce and their families or the global economic losses to enterprises and societies.


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