1 ISSN 2278- 4136. ZDB-Number: 2668735-5. IC Journal No: 8192. Volume 1 Issue 4 Online Available at Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry Recent Trends of Phytosomes for Delivering Herbal Extract with Improved Bioavailability Arijit Gandhi 1*, Avik Dutta 1, Avijit Pal 1, Paromita Bakshi1. 1. Gupta College of Technological Sciences, Ashram more, Road, Asansol-713301, West Bengal, India. [E-mail: In the recent days, most of the prevailing diseases and nutritional disorders are treated with natural medicines. The effectiveness of any herbal medication is dependent on the delivery of effective level of the therapeutically active compound.]
2 But a severe limitation exists in their bioavailability when administered orally or by topical applications. Phytosomes are recently introduced herbal formulations that are better absorbed and as a result produced better bioavailability and actions than the conventional phyto molecules or botanical extracts. Phytosomes are produced by a process whereby the standardized plant extract or its constituents are bound to phospholipids, mainly phosphatidylcholine producing a lipid compatible molecular complex. Phytosome exhibit better pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profile than conventional herbal extracts. The present review represents the recent advances and applications of various standardized herbal extract phytosomes as a tool of drug delivery.
3 Keyword: Herbal extracts; Bioavailability; Phytosomes; Herbal Drug delivery. 1. Introduction produce lipid compatible molecular complexes, Preparations of plants or parts of them were called as phytosomes and so vastly improve their widely used in popular medicine since ancient absorption and bioavailability. The Phytosomes times and till today the use of phytomedicines is process produces a little cell because of that the widespread in most of the world's population. valuable components of the herbal extract are During the last century chemical and protected from destruction by digestive secretions pharmacological studies have been performed on and gut bacteria.
4 Phytosomes are better able to a lot of plant extracts in order to know their transition from a hydrophilic environment into chemical composition and confirm the indications the lipid-friendly environment of the enterocyte of traditional medicine. cell membrane and from there into the cell finally It has often been observed that the separation and reaching the blood. Phytosomes have improved purification of the various components of an pharmacokinetic and pharmacological parameter extract may lead to a partial loss of specific which in result can advantageously be used in the activity for the purified component. Phytosome is treatment of the acute and chronic liver disease of a patented technology developed by a leading toxic metabolic or infective origin or of manufacturer of drugs and nutraceuticals, to degenerative nature.
5 It can also be used in anti- incorporate standardized plant extracts or water inflammatory activity as well as in soluble phytoconstituents into phospholipids to pharmaceutical and cosmetic compositions. Vol. 1 No. 4 2012 Page | 6 Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry Phytosomes forms tail and envelops the choline bound Phytosome is also called as Phytolipids delivery material. As a result, a lipid compatible molecular system which forms a bridge between the complex is formed called phytosome. The convectional delivery system and novel delivery molecules are bound to polar choline moiety of system. It is a newly introduced patented phosphatidyl choline through chemical bonds technology developed by Indena to incorporate which can be demonstrated by specific standardized plant extracts or water soluble spectroscopic techniques[7,8].
6 Phytoconstituents into phospholipids to produce lipid compatible molecular complexes, which Properties of phytosomes: enhances their absorption and bioavailability. The 1. Physico Chemical properties: term phyto means plant while some means Phytosomes is a complex between a natural cell-like, often referred as herbosome in certain product and natural phospholipids, like soy literature. The Phytosome technology produces a phospholipids. Such a complex is obtained by little cell, better able to transit from a hydrophilic reaction of stoichiometric amounts of environment into the lipid-friendly environment phospholipids and the substrate in an appropriate of the enterocyte cell membrane and from there solvent.
7 On the basis of spectroscopic data it has into the cell, finally reaching the blood. in such a been shown that the main phospholipids substrate way it protects the valuable components of the interaction is due to the formation of hydrogen herbal extract from destruction by digestive bonds between the polar head of phospholipids secretions and gut bacteria. Phytosomes are better ( phosphate and ammonium groups) and the able to transition from a hydrophilic environment polar functionalities of the substrate. When into the lipid-friendly environment of the treated with water, phytosomes assumes a enterocyte cell membrane and from there into the micellar shape forming liposomal like structures.
8 Cell, finally reaching the blood. When different In liposomes the active principle is dissolved in phytoconstituents such as flavonoids, terpenes & the internal pocket or it is floating in the layer saponins forms reversible complexes with membrane, while in phytosomes the active phospholipids, they shown that their anti- principle is anchored to the polar head of inflammatory and vasokinetic activities are phospholipids, becoming an integral part of the higher and long lasting than those observed after membrane. For example in the case of the administration of same amount of substance in catechindistearoylphosphatidylcholine complex, free form.
9 This is mainly due to the complexation there is the formation of H bonds between the of active ingredients with phospholipids[5,6]. phenolic hydroxyl ends of the flavones moiety and the phosphate ion on the phosphatidylcholine Phytosome technology: moiety. Phosphatidyl choline can be deduced The water soluble constituents (flavonoids and from the comparison of 1H NMR and 13C NMR. terpenoid) of plant extracts have the affinity to spectra of the complex with those of the pure bind directly with phosphatidylcholine. A precursors. The signals of fatty chain remain stoichiometric amount of phosphatidylcholine almost unchanged. Such evidence inferred that (phospholipid) is allowed to react with standard the too long aliphatic chains are wrapped around extract in a non-polar solvent.
10 The active principle, producing a lipophilic Phosphatidylcholine being a bifunctional envelope, which shields the polar head of the compound possessing a lipophilic phosphatidyl phospholipid and flavonoid molecule and enables moiety and hydrophilic choline moiety helps in the complex to dissolve in low polarity improvement of bioavailability of water soluble solvents. phytoconstituents (like simple flavonoids). The hydrophilic moiety (choline group) binds with 2. Biological properties: Phytosomes are water soluble phytoconstituents and forms the advanced forms of herbal products that are better body while as lipid soluble phosphatidyl moiety absorbed, utilized and as a result produce better Vol.