1 Pfc. Andrew Skalecki and Spc. Jose Rodriquez, water treatment special- ists with the 339th Quartermaster Company, resupply more than 500. and Canadian Soldiers staying in a tent village at Yongin, South Korea, on Aug. 25, 2016. (Photo by Staff Sgt. Ken Scar). Logistics Forecasting and Estimates in the Brigade Combat Team By Capt. Michael Johnson and Lt. Col. Brent Coryell A. ccurately Forecasting logis- tics requirements is cru- cial to the mission analysis phase of the military decisionmaking process, yet it is often overlooked by Brigade Combat team (BCT) Logistics planners. BCT Logistics planners tend to submit the same daily requests in- stead of requesting supplies based on the future mission and factors such as requirements, consumption rates, time, and distance.
2 Observer-coach trainers at the National Training Center (NTC) at Fort Irwin, California, have observed that many BCTs submit automated requirements with no analysis and depend on default pushes of sup- plies from higher echelons to satisfy requirements. This failure to forecast commits distribution assets unneces- sarily and often results in backhauls of large quantities of supplies that waste man-hours and pose increased risk to Soldiers. Not analyzing requirement sub- missions also results in failure to an- ticipate requirements for changing missions, such as when units transi- tion from defensive to offensive op- cial for sustainment planning. Since erations. While occasionally effective it is based primarily on population, in sustaining units for a short time, class I is not as influenced by maneu- the method is very inefficient and is ver operations as most other supply not sustainable.
3 Classes are. This article provides demonstrated Meals. There are three categories of methods of Forecasting Logistics to meals: meals ready-to-eat (MREs), create maximum operational reach, unitized group rations (UGR) A. FEATURES flexibility, and Logistics synchroni- zation. It is intended to assist junior option, and UGR heat and serve. Logistics planners forecast meals Logistics planners in making better needed to sustain the force based on estimation decisions. the head count (the number of Sol- Observer-coach trainers diers) multiplied by the ration cycle Mission Analysis (the type of meal) multiplied by the from the National Train- Forecasting requirements begins issue cycle (how often bulk rations during mission analysis and is the are delivered).
4 Ing Center provide meth- most important mental process for Logistics planners. Mission analysis For example, if 100 Soldiers on an M-M-M (three MRE) ration cycle should be a focused effort in which were on a 2 issue cycle (where they ods for accurate, detailed planners define the current opera- receive two days of supply at a time), tional environment in terms of ca- the total MREs needed would be Logistics Estimates . pabilities, requirements, assessments, and mitigation plans. Logistics plan- calculated like this: ners should ask, What do I have, Head count Ration cycle Issue cycle what don't I have, what do I need, = x meals and how do I get what I need? . The foundation for accurate fore- 100 Soldiers 3 meals 2 days casting is the use of standard Logistics = 600 meals estimation tools that analyze dis- tances and usage hours (derived from When multiple ration types are the scheme of maneuver) in order to used, planners account for each type provide calculated consumption rates individually, with the forecasted ra- for task-organized equipment.
5 This tions being the final sum. produces a Logistics estimate that Because meals are transported by mitigates shortfalls and eliminates cases or modules on pallets, the value unnecessary backhaul. would be converted using the infor- Historical data is a good starting mation shown in figure 1. Using the point, but it should not be the prima- example, 600 meals would equate to ry Forecasting method when estimat- 50 cases or one pallet of MREs plus ing for a new operation. Historical two additional cases. data is valuable only when an opera- If conducting phased operations, tion has matured enough for the data the issue cycle could cover each phase, to be applicable to the situation. For so a four-day phase would be an is- example, consumption rates for an sue of four, pending unit-haul and attack in a forested, temperate envi- storage capabilities.
6 Planners should ronment will differ drastically from always adjust their total values by 10. one in an arid desert. percent to account for unforeseen Here are procedural Estimates and changes, such as an unexpected at- examples for each class of supply ex- tachment of a unit. Additional meals cept for classes VI (personal demand may be required for humanitarian aid items) and VII (major end items). and the holding of personnel, such as The examples are based on published detainees and enemy prisoners of war. consumption rates. There are two primary consider- ations when transporting meals: stor- Class I (Subsistence) ing perishable items and transporting Forecasting meals and water is cru- cooked UGRs. Units must consider 28 November December 2016 Army Sustainment the use of ice and multitemperature vary with each climate.
7 Arid climates refrigerated container systems when require 6 pounds per person; trop- Meals Ready-To-Eat incorporating perishable items into ic, 5 pounds; temperate, 4 pounds;. the ration cycle. Heat-and-serve and arctic, 3 pounds. The bag size Meals per case 12. UGRs are issued in a set of three will determine how many bags will Cases per pallet 48. modules. Module 3 heat-and-serve be on each pallet. For example, 103. UGRs are the only meals that need 20-pound bags fit on one standard Weight per case lbs. cold storage in order to remain safe pallet, and 14 pallets can fit inside to consume. one multitemperature refrigerated Weight per pallet 1,089 lbs. Time must be considered when container system. cooking UGRs. Once the UGR is at Decontamination.
8 Decontamina- Unitized Group Rations the correct temperature, it must be tion operations require substantial consumed within four hours. Plan- water for each Soldier and vehi- Servings/module 50. ners must be cognizant of where a cle. The unit decontamination crew unit's assault or containerized kitch- washes off gross contamination using Modules/pallet 8 (400 servings). en is located in relation to the for- 100 to 150 gallons of hot, soapy water ward line of troops. Planners should on each vehicle. Each armored com- Weight/module 128 lbs. add 40 to 70 minutes to the actual bat vehicles may require 200 or more travel time to account for the loading gallons of water for decontamination. Weight/pallet 1,020 lbs. and unloading of meals.
9 One hundred gallons of water will Pallet size 40 x 48 x 40 in. Water. Water Forecasting can be provide one vehicle with a two- to categorized into bulk water, ice, and three-minute wash. Detailed equip- decontamination planning. During ment decontamination requires more Figure 1. Transportation planning fiscal year 2015, a total of 59,800 gal- water. (See figure 4 on page 31.) For factors. (Adapted from Command and lons of bulk water were backhauled troop decontamination beyond the General Staff College Student Text between forward support companies exchange of mission-oriented pro- (CGSC ST) 4-2, Theater Sustainment (FSCs) and Brigade support battal- tective posture equipment, water re- Battle Book). ion (BSB) units at the NTC, which quirements are 25 gallons per person.
10 Resulted in the unnecessary use of personnel and equipment. Class II Bulk Water Storage Bulk water planning consists of Successful class II (clothing and Capacity in identifying capabilities, requirements, individual equipment) Forecasting re- Storage Type Gallons and shortfalls. The Brigade support sides at the unit supply level, where operations section and Brigade and inventories are conducted regularly to Buffalo 400. battalion S-4s can calculate avail- avoid shortage of critical equipment, able water capabilities based on asset clothing, and office supplies. Soldiers Blivet 500. availability to understand the max- deploy with an initial load of class II. imum water capability of each unit. and receive theater-specific equip- Hippo 2,000.