1 SHRP-H-348. Manuals of Practice Materials and Procedures for Sealing and Filling Cracks in Asphalt-Surfaced Pavements Kelly L. Smith, A. Russell Romine Materials and Procedures for the Repair of Potholes in Asphalt-Surfaced Pavements Thomas P. Wilson, A. Russell Romine ERES Consultants, Inc., Savoy, Illinois Strategic Highway Research Program National Research Council SHRP-H-348. ISBN 0-309-05607-1. Contract H-106. Product Code 3003. Program Manager: Don M. Harriott Project Manager: Shashikant C. Shah Program Area Secretary: Francine A. Burgess Production Editor: Katharyn L. Bine August 1993. Reprinted February 1994. key words: asphalt concrete cold mix crack Filling crack Sealing patching potholes pavement maintenance spray injection Strategic Highway Research Program 2101 Constitution Avenue Washington, DC 20418.
2 (202) 334-3774. The publication of this report does not necessarily indicate approval or endorsement by the National Academy of Sciences, the United States Government, or the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials or its member states of the findings, opinions, conclusions, or recommendations either inferred or specifically expressed herein. 1993 National Academy of Sciences .7M/NAP/294. Preface This book contains two pavement maintenance manuals intended for use by highway maintenance agencies and contracted maintenance firms in the field and in the office. Each is a compendium of good practices for asphalt concrete (AC) crack Sealing and Filling and pothole repair, respectively, stemming from two Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP) studies. In project H-105, Innovative Materials and Equipment for Pavement Surface Repair, the researchers conducted a massive literature review and a nationwide survey of highway agencies to identify potentially cost-effective repair and treatment options.
3 The information and findings from this study were then used in the subsequent field experiments conducted under project H-106, Innovative Materials Development and Testing. In the H-106 project, the installation and evaluation of many different test sections were conducted to determine the cost- effectiveness of maintenance Materials and Procedures . Test sections were installed at 22 sites throughout the United States and Canada between March 1991 and February 1992, under the supervision of SHRP representatives. The researchers collected installation and productivity information at each site and periodically evaluated the experimental repairs and treatments for 18 months following installation. Long-term performance and cost-effectiveness information for the various repair and treatment Materials and Procedures was not available at the time these manuals were prepared.
4 However, subsequent performance evaluations may lead to future editions of these manuals to address performance and cost-effectiveness more thoroughly. iii For the reader's convenience, potentially unfamiliar terms are italicized at their first occurrence in the manuals and are defined in glossaries. Readers who want more information on topics included in the manuals should refer the reference lists for each manual. The final report for the H-106 project may be of particular interest to many readers. 2 It details the installation Procedures , laboratory testing of the Materials , and field performance of each of the repair and treatment types. iv Acknowledgments The research described herein was supported by the Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP). SHRP is a unit of the National Research Council that was authorized by Section 128 of the Surface Transportation and Uniform Relocation Assistance Act of 1987.
5 Special thanks are due the project management team at SHRP, and to the following highway agencies. Manual for Sealing and Filling Cracks : Texas Department of Transportation Kansas Department of Transportation Washington State Department of Transportation Iowa Department of Transportation Ministry of Transportation of Ontario. Manual for pothole repair: Illinois Department of Transportation Vermont Agency of Transportation Ontario Ministry of Transportation City of Draper, Utah California Department of Transportation Oregon Department of Transportation Texas Department of Transportation New Mexico Highway and Transportation Department The contributions of the following individuals are also acknowledged. Manual for Sealing and Filling Cracks : Michael Darter, Samuel Carpenter, David Peshkin, Mike Belangie, Henry Bankie, and Jim Chehovits.
6 Manual for pothole repair: Michael Darter, Samuel Carpenter, and David Peshkin. vi Materials and Procedures for Sealing and Filling Cracks in Asphalt-Surfaced Pavements Manual of Practice Strategic Highway Research Program National Research Council Contents Preface .. iii Acknowledgments .. v Introduction .. 1. Scope of Manual .. 2. Need for Crack Treatment .. 4. Pavement/Crack Evaluation .. 4. Determining the Type of Maintenance .. 6. Other Considerations .. 9. Objectives of Sealing and Filling .. 9. Determining Whether to Seal or Fill .. 10. When to Seal and When to Fill .. 11. Planning and Design .. 14. Primary Considerations .. 14. Selecting a Sealant or Filler material .. 15. Laboratory Testing .. 20. Selecting a Placement Configuration .. 21. Selecting Procedures and Equipment .. 27. Crack Cutting.
7 29. Crack Cleaning and Drying .. 34. Airblasting .. 34. Hot Airblasting .. 35. Sandblasting .. 37. Wirebrushing .. 38. material Preparation and Application .. 38. Bond-Breaker Installation .. 38. Cold-Applied Thermoplastic Materials .. 39. Hot-Applied Thermoplastic Materials .. 40. Cold-Applied Thermosetting Materials . o. 42. material Finishing/Shaping .. 42. material Blotting .. 43. vii Estimating material Requirements .. 44. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis .. 44. Construction .. 47. Traffic Control .. 47. Safety .. 48. Crack Cutting .. 48. Crack Cleaning and Drying .. 49. High-Pressure Airblasting .. 51. Hot Airblasting .. 51. Sandblasting .. 53. Wirebrushing .. 53. material Preparation and Application .. 54. Installing Backer Rod .. 55. material Preparation .. 56. material Application .. 58. Asphalt Kettle Cleanout.
8 60. material Finishing/Shaping .. 61. material Blotting .. 62. Evaluating Treatment Performance .. 63. Appendix A material Testing Specifications .. 65. Appendix B Determining material Quantity Requirements .. 69. Appendix C Sample Cost-Effectiveness Calculations .. 71. Appendix D Inspection Checklists for Construction .. 75. Appendix E material and Equipment Safety Precautions .. 81. Appendix F Partial List of material and Equipment Sources .. 83. Glossary .. 87. References .. 91. viii List of Figures Figure 1. Pavement/crack survey form .. 5. Figure 2. Pavement candidate for surface treatment: high-density cracking .. 7. Figure 3. Pavement candidate for crack repair .. 7. Figure 4. Pavement candidate for transverse crack Sealing .. 8. Figure 5. Pavement candidate for longitudinal crack Filling .. 8. Figure 6.
9 material placement configurations .. 22. Figure 7. Rotary-impact router .. 33. Figure 8. Diamond-blade crack saw .. 33. Figure 9. High-pressure airblasting using compressed air .. 36. Figure 10. Hot airblasting using HCA. (heat) lance .. 36. Figure 11. Sandblasting operation .. 37. Figure 12. Backer rod installation tool .. 39. Figure 13. Asphalt kettle with pressure applicator .. 40. Figure 14. Industrial squeegee molded into a "U" shape .. 43. ix Figure 15. Worksheet for determining material quantity requirements .. 45. Figure 16. Cost-effectiveness computation worksheet .. 46. Figure 17. Crack segment missed by cutting equipment .. 49. Figure 18. Primary crack accompanied by secondary crack .. 50. Figure 19. Sandblasting wand with wooden guide attached .. 54. Figure 20. Example graph of treatment effectiveness versus time.
10 64. Figure B-1. Solution to material requirements problem .. 70. Figure C-1. Example of cost-effectiveness analysis .. 73. List of Tables Table 1. Steps in a crack treatment program .. 3. Table 2. Guidelines for determining the type of maintenance to conduct .. 6. Table 3. Recommended criteria for determining whether to seal or fill .. 12. Table 4. Summary of AC crack treatment Materials .. 18. Table 5. Properties associated with various material types .. 19. Table 6. Placement configuration considerations .. 28. Table 7. Crack treatment equipment characteristics and recommendations .. 30. Table 8. Typical manpower requirements and production rates for crack treatment operations .. 32. Table A-1. Asphalt rubber specifications .. 66. Table A-2. Self-leveling silicone specifications .. 66. Table A-3. Rubberized asphalt specifications.