1 CHAPTER 42 / Stress and Coping 1075 NURSING care PLANI neffective CopingASSESSMENT DATANURSING DIAGNOSISDESIRED OUTCOMES* NURSING AssessmentRuby Smithson is a 55-year-old mother of four children who ishospitalized with breast cancer. She is scheduled for a modifiedradical mastectomy. Ruby was relatively healthy until she found alump in her right breast 1 week ago. She and her husband are ex-tremely anxious about the surgery. Ruby confides to the admittingnurse that I can t stand the idea of having one of my breasts cutoff; I don t know how I m going to be able to even look at myself. Mr. Smithson informs the nurse that Ruby has been abusing alco-hol since her diagnosis and neglecting her responsibilities as amother.
2 She is tearful and doesn t see how she will be able tocontinue her work as a dress Copingrelated topersonal vulnerability secondaryto mastectomy (as evidencedby verbalization of inability tocope, substance abuse, inabilityto meet role expectations) Coping , as evidencedby often demonstrating abilityto Identify effective and inef-fective Coping patterns Verbalize sense of control Report decrease in negativefeelings Modify lifestyle as neededSocial Support, as evi-denced by substantial reports of Willingness to call on othersfor help Emotional assistance pro-vided by othersNURSING INTERVENTIONS*/SELECTED ACTIVITIESRATIONALEC oping Enhancement Provide an atmosphere of factual information concerning the diagnosis, treatment,and Ruby s adjustment to changes in body situations that encourage her autonomy.
3 Give her asmany opportunities as possible to make decisions/choices with her previous methods of dealing with life verbalization of feelings, perceptions, and Ruby to identify her own strengths and rapport is essential to a therapeutic relationship andsupports the client in self-reflection. Recognizing problems andsharing feelings is best brought about in an atmosphere ofwarmth and information serves as a foundation for Ruby to explorefeelings and alternative Coping strategies. Stressed clients oftenmisunderstand facts and require frequent clarification so that ap-propriate conclusions can be drawn.
4 Having valid informationhelps relieve in body image may be a major issue for Ruby andshould be explored to facilitate therapeutic intervention. Copingstrategies often change with a reappraisal of the a sense of control, personal achievement, and and past Coping status assists both Ruby and her hus-band in capitalizing on successful methods, identifying ineffectivestrategies, and developing new skills more appropriate to thepresent situation. Also determines risk for inflicting , nonthreatening discussions facilitate the identification ofcausative and contributing Ruby to develop appropriate strategies for Coping basedon personal strengths and previous experiences.
5 Improves self-concept and sense of ability to manage ExaminationHeight: 164 cm (5 5 )Weight: 58 kg (158 lb)Temperature: 37 C ( F)Pulse rate: 88 BPMR espirations: 16/minuteBlood pressure: 142/88 mm HgDiagnostic DataChest x-ray negative, CBC, andurinalysis within normal 11/8/06 6:03 PM Page 10751076 UNIT IX / Promoting Psychosocial HealthIndividuals experiencing stress may have unrealistic perceptions orreality distortions. Helping Ruby clearly describe her role would bebeneficial in developing realistic goals for role the individual in channeling potentially harmful emotionsand physical energy into constructive care plan Ineffective CopingcontinuedNURSING INTERVENTIONS/SELECTED ACTIVITIES*RATIONALE Encourage Ruby to realistically describe changes in her constructive outlets for anger and System Enhancement 
6 Observe the degree of family barriers to using support husband, family, and friends in the care and with concerned others how they can Ruby to a community-based breast cancer support family interaction serves as a basis for identifying Ruby ssupport systems or lack adequate support systems may be available, Ruby maynot be using them or may be using them Ruby in acknowledging changes in her appearanceconveys acceptance and provides a foundation for her to begin and friends are often willing but unsure how to help. Identi-fying specific strategies such as praise and encouragement duringrehabilitation and healing will promote acceptance of support is beneficial in helping to meet unresolvedneeds, decreasing feelings of social isolation, and facilitating apositive Coping outcome was not met.
7 Following surgery, Ruby was withdrawn. During bathing, she would not assist and turned her head awaywhen the dressing was removed. She refused to learn how to manage the wound drain or to discuss her feelings or plans for the clients having a mastectomy are often only hospitalized for a few days, it may be that she requires more time to reach the desiredoutcome. Continue to offer information and demonstrate availability for when she is ready to verbalize feelings. Social support outcomepartly met. Ruby allows her husband to provide direct care and emotional support for her. A social worker was consulted and discharge wasdelayed for 24 hours.
8 Ruby has agreed that the social worker can contact a breast cancer support group and ask the group to call CRITICAL THINKING1. If Ruby had been able to choose a lumpectomy rather than amastectomy (less visible, smaller, potentially less meaningful tissue removal), would the NURSING diagnosis and expectedoutcomes remain the same? Why or why not?2. Does Ruby s situation reflect more of a stimulus-based modelor a response-based model? Why?3. While working with Ruby, she becomes very angry and says toyou You don t understand. You ve never had to go throughthis. How would you respond?
9 4. Based on the evaluation above, do you believe that Ruby is incrisis? What factors led to your decision? How does your viewchange the modifications indicated in her care plan ?5. Give one example of how Ruby might use the defense mecha-nisms described on page 1067. Explain whether this is adaptiveor Critical Thinking Possibilities in Appendix A.*The NOC # for desired outcomes and the NIC # for NURSING interventions are listed in brackets following the appropriate outcome or , indicators, interventions, and activities selected are only a sample of those suggested by NOC and NIC and should be further individual-ized for each 11/8/06 6:03 PM Page 1076