1 Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) Manual FOOD AND. AGRICULTURE. ORGANISATION OF. THE UNITED NATIONS. GCP/RLA/167/EC. SFA 2006 ST. LUCIA. Participatory Rural . Appraisal (PRA) Manual . prepared by Rufina Paul National Consultant Rural Sociologist/Extensionist PROJECT TITLE: * Assistance to improve agricultural production and productivity by promoting technology adaptation IV Participatory Rural Appraisal Manual . Table of Contents PREFACE.. 1. WHY PRA?.. 2. PRINCIPLES OF PRA .. 3. ANTICIPATED OUTPUTS OF PRA PROCESS .. 4. DEFINING KEY AREAS FOR INVESTIGATION.. 5. CONSIDERATIONS IN DEVELOPING THE PRA METHODOLOGY.
2 6. PRA TOOLS.. 8. 1. Brainstorming .. 9. 2. Focus Group.. 9. 3. Priority Grid.. 10. 4. Transects / Maps .. 12. 5. Resource Mapping .. 13. 6. Crop Calendar .. 15. 7. Constraints Analysis.. 17. 8. Opportunity Matrix .. 19. 9. Stakeholder Analysis ..20. 10. Venn Diagrams .. 21. 11. Gender Analysis .. 21. 12. Time Budget Analysis..22. 13. Analysis of the Relations of Production .. 23. 14. Genderised Logical Framework (Logframe) .. 24. 15. Trend Analysis .. 25. 16. Role Play.. 26. 17. Case Studies .. 27. 18. Resource Flow.. 28. 19. Wealth Ranking..29. 20. Crop Budgeting..30. CONCLUSION.. 32. REFERENCES.
3 33. APPENDICES..34. APPENDIX 01..35. APPENDIX 02..37. APPENDIX 03..39. APPENDIX 03.. 41. APPENDIX 03..43. APPENDIX 04..45. APPENDIX 05..46. Participatory Rural Appraisal Manual V. Preface A. ccording to St. Lucia's are a part. Historically, technology validation National Agricultural Policy, the and transfer methodologies were mainly Government's core strategies focused on the adoption of new techniques to promote growth and socio- and practices. Little attention was paid to economic development the constraints faced by farmers and their involve the fostering of a commercialized households or to the inherent mitigating and agri-entrepreneurial approach to factors within either the policy, bio- farming.
4 Towards this end, Government physical or socio-economic environment. will pursue, among other policy measures, the strengthening of the agricultural This Manual takes account of the research system and technology adoption, experience of the Participatory Rural to ensure that policy and strategies are Appraisal (PRA) exercise conducted by more responsive to farmers' needs. FAO in collaboration with the Extension Division within the Ministry of Agriculture, Adoption of technologies is heavily Lands, Fisheries and Forestry in St. influenced by the perceptions, knowledge, Lucia in June 2009. The objective of creativity and competence of farmers.
5 This undertaking was to diagnose the Gender issues are also important factors constraints and opportunities related to the that need to be considered. In effect, adoption of integrated soil management, socio-cultural factors like these greatly plant nutrition and plant health systems. It influence decision-making, choices, therefore engaged key stakeholders in the actions and outcomes in the sector. assessment of resource endowments and availability and the intensity of production The FAO project which is geared towards: and productivity of selected farm models. Assistance to improve agricultural production and productivity by promoting The training approach and materials in technology adaptation, duly recognizes this Manual records the methodologies the prevalence of less than adequate to be employed in determining the management of the land resource situation, needs, constraints, motivation base, the presence of diseased and opportunities for farmers and their soils, unsanitary farm conditions and households.
6 This Manual also presents consequent low agricultural productivity the PRA tools that, if adopted, can levels. Plant nutrition and plant health are greatly assist in identifying deep-seated indispensible to the process of realizing problems, as well as opportunities optimal productivity at the level of the farm which impact on the pace of technology household's cropping subsystems and also adaptation and transfer within the to the overall farming system of which they agricultural sector of St. Lucia. 1 Participatory Rural Appraisal Manual . WHY PRA? T. raditional approaches aimed approach with targeted beneficiaries.
7 At adoption of integrated plant nutrient systems and PRA methodologies facilitate the capture integrated pest management of the perspectives of farmers and other have fallen short of anticipated key actors to inform the management outcomes in respect of plant nutrition of soil and plant nutrients, as well as and plant health. Furthermore, intended plant health. PRA provides scope for all beneficiaries have been passive recipients involved to learn from each other and of the prescribed technological packages. stimulates self-propelled initiatives. This The Government of St. Lucia and FAO methodology permits the application of duly recognizes that any programme that a set of tools and techniques that allow is geared towards improving agricultural for the transformation of knowledge and production and productivity, through the shared experiences into actions that are promotion of technology adaptation and oriented towards economically justifiable, improvement in plant health services, socially acceptable and environmentally must therefore incorporate a Participatory sound production system(s).
8 Participatory Rural Appraisal Manual 2. Principles of PRA. The basic principles or characteristics of PRA which must be duly considered are: 1. The process should not be unduly hurried or rushed. 2. Triangulation is essential. This basically means cross-checking1. information from different sources and using different approaches. 3. Optimal Ignorance2, which simply means capturing information about things that are relevant to the study's specific aims and objectives rather than collecting information that is not relevant to the subject matter of the study. 1 ithout cross-checking, there is the possibility for the W.
9 Misinterpretation or misrepresentation of observations or findings. This can be the result of the range and variations in perspectives, interpretation and opinions of participants and stakeholders in the process. In addition, only parts of the real picture may be captured, or some participants may deliberately give false information, or ill-informed individuals may tend to dominate discussions and influence outcomes. or findings. This can be the result of the range and variations in perspectives, interpretation and opinions of participants and stakeholders in the process. In addition, only parts of the real picture may be captured, or some participants may deliberately give false information, or ill-informed individuals may tend to dominate discussions and influence outcomes.
10 2 One important reason for adopting this principle is that the time of the local people (particularly women). is precious. Another reason is that experience has shown that the collection of large amounts of detailed, quantitative information during the diagnostic or needs assessment phase tends to create problems in data management and analysis. 3 Participatory Rural Appraisal Manual . Anticipated The Participatory approach takes into account not only the overall productivity and sustainability of the farming Outputs of system per se, but very importantly, the household's cropping subsystem as well.