1 P B N. rfo an rm ce Ba se g d vi al na lob s: Na n vig io n at sta atio n da r ds Pe a l g te l ob ires anda G qu tm d2. re pmen91 an ui 0. Eq O 2. CA. Disclaimer This Booklet is for information purposes only. It should not be relied on as the sole source of information, and should always be used in the context of other authoritative sources and the relevant regulations. 2014 Civil Aviation Safety Authority This work is copyright. You may download, display, print and reproduce this material in unaltered form only (retaining this notice) for your personal, non-commercial use, or use within your organisation.
2 Apart from any use as permitted under the Copyright Act 1968, all other rights are reserved. Direct any requests for further authorisation to: Safety Promotion, Civil Aviation Safety Authority GPO Box 2005 Canberra ACT 2601 (Australia), or email: v4. Performance Based Navigation 01. Contents What is PBN? 02. Benefits of PBN 06. What is happening? 08. Why is it happening? 09. How will I be affected? 10. PBN deeming provisions table 12. Transitional provisions 14. aircraft equipment 15. ICAO flight plan changes 18. FAQs 20. Glossary 22. Key dates for PBN and ADS-B 25. Contacts 26. Visit to view a range of case studies.
3 02. What is PBN? Navigation using legacy ground aids is relative navigation' since aircraft are Performance-based Navigation, or PBN, always operating relative to the navaids . is area navigation that uses on-board whether tracking to or from aids, or flying systems and will be based on global to a point defined by a VOR radial and navigation satellite systems (GNSS) in DME distance from a ground station. PBN, Australia. This is in contrast with traditional on the other hand, is absolute navigation'. sensor-specific navigation based largely on fixed ground-based beacons guiding the aircraft operates by first determining aircraft along published routes via its present position in terms of latitude and waypoints defined by these beacons.
4 Longitude, and then where this position is in relation to the intended flight path. PBN defines aircraft navigation requirements in terms of the accuracy, This has the major advantage of flexibility: integrity, continuity and functionality providing the aircraft has a means of required for the proposed operations. determining its current position, it can operate anywhere that positioning system will operate. Alaska airlines Performance Based Navigation 03. PBN encompasses two types of navigation These systems may use alternate means specifications: of aircraft autonomous integrity monitoring systems that are the equivalent of RAIM.
5 RNAV (aRea NAVigation), and The on-board performance monitoring and RNP (Required Navigation Performance). alerting function ensures the integrity of The difference between the RNAV and the navigation solution the system is RNP navigation specifications is that on- meeting the required accuracy. board performance monitoring and alerting Information from the GNSS calculates its is required for RNP but not for RNAV. position from the satellites in view. operations. A timely warning is provided when the In an aircraft utilising a stand-alone GNSS, accuracy of that position falls outside an RNP is achieved through the use of acceptable limit, alerting the pilot of the Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring need to discontinue the approach.
6 (RAIM). Area navigation systems often integrate several sources of navigation For example, setting an RNP value of information inertial and GNSS, NM means the on-board performance to provide highly accurate navigation monitoring will alert the pilot if it estimates solutions. the error of the navigation system exceeds NM. 04. Under PBN, airspace and route design Under PBN, common Australian take into account the aircraft operations operational navigation specifications in the region, and the capability of aircraft will be: flying there. RNP 2 en route Both aircraft and flight crew must meet RNP 1 for Standard Instrument performance standards for that route, Departures (SIDs), and Standard Terminal which may change according to the flight Arrival Routes (STARs).
7 Phase (en route, approach etc.) and the class of airspace in which the aircraft RNP APCH LNAV approach is flying. (Under GNSS-RNAV, these were en route, terminal, and non-precision approach.). Cruise e rtur pa De Take off RNP 1 RNP 2. SIDs Performance Based Navigation 05. Navigation specifications RNP specifications RNAV specifications (includes a requirement for (no requirement for on-board performance on-board performance monitoring and alerting) monitoring and alerting). Oceanic and remote En route and terminal En route and terminal specifications: specifications: specifications: RNP 4 RNP 2 RNAV 5.
8 RNP 2 RNP 1 RNAV 2. A-RNP RNAV 1. RNP APCH. RNP AR APCH. RNP Oceanic and remote specifications: RNAV 10 (RNP 10). Metering de sc en t Fin al approach Landing RNP 1 RNP APCH or RNP AR APCH. STARs 06. Benefits of PBN air traffic management will bring even more efficiency, with aircraft operating The introduction of PBN allows pilots, on direct routes at optimum altitudes, operators and air traffic control to thus avoiding the dreaded arrival holding make the best use of recent huge pattern. advances in navigation technology, and PBN and GNSS allow straight-in brings increased safety, efficiency and approaches to be designed for most environmental benefits, including: runways.
9 International Civil Aviation Reduced separation standards for all Organization (ICAO) data shows that phases of flight. As the skies become straight-in approaches are 25 times busier, PBN allows the most efficient safer than circling approaches. Adding use of available airspace, through vertical guidance to the approach brings appropriately managed reductions in a further safety gain. separation standards and track miles Approaches with vertical guidance, flown during the en-route, approach where the aircraft has both lateral and landing phases. Australia's airways and vertical navigation capability, system will be able to handle more are a further eight times safer aircraft and do this more safely within than approaches without vertical time and airspace constraints.
10 Guidance, so are a significant safety Reduced track miles/fuel burn/carbon enhancement. Currently the only dioxide emissions during landing approaches with vertical guidance approaches. PBN technology has the available in Australia (apart from real potential to reduce unproductive ILS) are Baro-VNAV, where aircraft flight time, unnecessary delays barometric altitude is used to control and fuel burn, providing obvious the aircraft to a defined vertical path. economic benefits to operators, and These approaches are limited to the environment. Advanced PBN aircraft that have accurate barometric applications now under development altimetry systems and to aerodromes will deliver further efficiencies through that have barometric pressure time-of-arrival control and continuous measurement and broadcast systems.