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PRINCIPLES FOR DETERMINING THE TRANSFER …

PRINCIPLES FOR DETERMINING THE TRANSFER capacities IN THE NORDIC POWER MARKET Revision Date Summary of updates 3. Final 2010-06-22 New version 4. Final 2011-02-18 Text about Estlink updated. Eastern Denmark - Western Denmark added to table under section Market coupling between Western Denmark - Germany via Baltic Cable. Market coupling between Norway - the Netherlands via NorNed. 5. Final 2011-10-20 Updated text due to the adjustment of bidding zones NO2 and NO5 in Norway and new bidding-zones in Sweden. 6. Final 2012-03-28 New text for Sweden, Norway, and Denmark, under sections , , and , respectively. 7. Final 2013-12-02 New Text for Norway, sections , and updated. 8. Final 2014-10-27 New general text for section 2, new text for Sweden in section and addition of sections and for Sweden.

principles for determining the transfer capacities in the nordic power market 05.04.2018

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Transcription of PRINCIPLES FOR DETERMINING THE TRANSFER …

1 PRINCIPLES FOR DETERMINING THE TRANSFER capacities IN THE NORDIC POWER MARKET Revision Date Summary of updates 3. Final 2010-06-22 New version 4. Final 2011-02-18 Text about Estlink updated. Eastern Denmark - Western Denmark added to table under section Market coupling between Western Denmark - Germany via Baltic Cable. Market coupling between Norway - the Netherlands via NorNed. 5. Final 2011-10-20 Updated text due to the adjustment of bidding zones NO2 and NO5 in Norway and new bidding-zones in Sweden. 6. Final 2012-03-28 New text for Sweden, Norway, and Denmark, under sections , , and , respectively. 7. Final 2013-12-02 New Text for Norway, sections , and updated. 8. Final 2014-10-27 New general text for section 2, new text for Sweden in section and addition of sections and for Sweden.

2 Section Finland updated. 9. Final 2014-12-10 New text on NO1A, section ; updated text on NO2-DK1 and NO2-NL, sections and Updated TRMs for Norway, section 10. Final 2015-01-22 Updates in section on connections to Estonia and Russia. 11. Final 2016-08-26 NordBalt added 12. Final 2016-11-21 Reserve capacity for reserves in Sweden 13. Final 2016-12-08 Ossauskoski-Kalix connection deleted, Fenno-Skan 1 permanent reduced voltage added. 2017-02-08 Updated with new corridor NO3-NO5. Changes in NO2-DK1 and NO2-NL. 15. Final 2017-11-30 Updated area definitions for NO3 in Updated diagrams in and Updated text in 16. Final 2018-04-05 Updated TRM value for Sweden (SE3) Sweden (SE4) and new section Added TRM for Northern Norway (NO4) Central Norway (NO3) 17.

3 Final 2018-12-11 Updated import capacity for NO4. Updated PRINCIPLES for capacities in NO1 during winter load. Expressions "Elspot" and "Elbas" removed from the document. Expression "bidding area" replaced by "bidding zone" 1 DEFINITIONS OF TRANSFER capacities .. 5 TOTAL TRANSFER CAPACITY - TTC .. 5 TRANSMISSION RELIABILITY MARGIN - TRM .. 5 NET TRANSFER CAPACITY - NTC .. 6 2 SECURITY 6 3 SYSTEM PROTECTION .. 7 4 CAPACITY CALCULATION PROCEDURES .. 7 5 PRACTICAL IMPLEMENTATION OF NTC CALCULATIONS .. 9 SWEDEN .. 9 GENERAL .. 9 WEST COAST CORRIDOR .. 9 SOUTHBOUND NTCS FOR CORRIDORS BETWEEN INTERNAL BIDDING ZONES IN SWEDEN .. 10 SE4 DE (BALTIC CABLE) .. 10 SE4 PL (SWEPOL LINK) .. 10 SE4 LT (NORDBALT) .. 11 NORWAY .. 11 NO2-DK1 (SKAGERRAK) AND NO2-NL (NORNED).

4 12 NO5-NO2 .. 13 NO2-NO1 AND NO5-NO1: NO1A .. 13 NO1-SE3 .. 14 NO1-NO3 .. 14 NO5-NO3 .. 15 NO3 .. 15 NO4 .. 15 FINLAND .. 16 DENMARK .. 16 6 REASON CODES AND AREA/ LOCATION CODES .. 17 1 DEFINITIONS OF TRANSFER capacities The PRINCIPLES for DETERMINING the capacities and margins are described in the System Operation Agreement between the Nordic TSOs. The System Operation Agreement is a part of the Nordic Grid Code, and can be found at The Nordic TSOs use definitions, which are in line with the definitions used in the European Network of Transmission System Operators for Electricity (ENTSO-E). TOTAL TRANSFER CAPACITY - TTC TTC is the maximum transmission of active power in accordance with the system security criteria which is permitted in transmission cross-sections between the subsystems/areas or individual installations.

5 TRANSMISSION RELIABILITY MARGIN - TRM TRM is a security margin that copes with uncertainties on the computed TTC values arising from: a) Unintended deviations of physical flows during operations due to physical functioning of load-frequency regulation, b) Emergency exchanges between TSOs to cope with unexpected unbalanced situations in real time, c) Inaccuracies, in data collection and measurements. The present TRM values for each connection are agreed upon in the specific System Operation Agreements and listed below. Connection TRM (MW) Sweden (SE3) - South-eastern Norway (NO1) 150 Sweden (SE2) - Central Norway (NO3) 25 Sweden (SE2) - Northern Norway (NO4) 25 Sweden (SE1) - Northern Norway (NO4) 25 Sweden (SE1) - Finland (FI) 100 Sweden (SE3) - Finland (FI) 0 *) Sweden (SE4) - Eastern Denmark (DK2) 50 Sweden (SE3) - Western Denmark (DK1) 0 *) Sweden (SE1) - Sweden (SE2) 100 Sweden (SE2) - Sweden (SE3) 300 Sweden (SE3) - Sweden (SE4) 100-200 **) South-western Norway (NO2) - Western Norway (NO5) 50 Northern Norway (NO4) Central Norway (NO3) 25 Central Norway (NO3) - Western Norway (NO5) 50 South-eastern Norway (NO1) - Western Norway (NO5) 75 South-western Norway (NO2) - South-eastern Norway (NO1) 75 South-eastern Norway (NO1) - Central Norway (NO3) 0 **)

6 NO1A-NO1 150 Southern Norway (NO2) - Western Denmark (DK1) 0 *) Finland (FI) - Estonia (EE) 0 *) Eastern Denmark (DK2)- Western Denmark (DK1) 0 *) *) HVDC-connection, TRM = 0 MW **) The capacity South-eastern Norway (NO1) - Central Norway (NO3) is a fixed value based on the expected flow on the connection the next day. **) The TRM value for the connection Sweden (SE3) Sweden (SE4) may vary, see section NET TRANSFER CAPACITY - NTC The Net TRANSFER Capacity NTC (trading capacity) is defined as: NTC = TTC - TRM NTC is the maximum exchange program between two areas compatible with security standards applicable in both areas and taking into account the technical uncertainties on future network conditions. 2 SECURITY STANDARDS The criteria for system security are based on the N-1 criterion.

7 N-1 is an expression of a level of system security entailing that a power system can handle the loss of any single component (production units, lines, transformers, bus bars, consumption etc.). For faults having the largest impact on the power system, the term dimensioning faults is used. If the power system is not in normal state following an operational disturbance, the power system must be restored to normal state within 15 minutes. 3 SYSTEM PROTECTION System protection is used to limit the consequences of faults in the power system. System protection can have as its purpose to increase the system security, the TRANSFER capacity, or a combination of these. System protection is composed of automatic system protection equipment for the power system. A production rejection scheme is one example of system protection, as production units are automatically disconnected from the grid in the event of a fault in order to avoid overload conditions.

8 4 CAPACITY CALCULATION PROCEDURES The TTC between two subsystems is jointly determined by the TSOs on both sides of the interconnection. When DETERMINING the capacity on the interconnection between two subsystems, the capacity is calculated by the TSOs on each side of the connection by computer programs using coordinated network models. If the values differ, the lowest value is used. The objective is to give the market as high capacity for energy trade as possible taking into account outages and faults in the network. The ability to transmit power shall be calculated for each state of operation. This applies both to transmissions within each subsystem and to exchanges between subsystems. In calculating the power system s ability to reliably TRANSFER electric power with respect to the N-1 criterion the following limiting factors may be observed: Thermal Limitations Thermal limitations refer to the maximum amount of electric current that a transmission line or electrical facility can conduct over a specified period of time without sustaining damage or being in violation of safety requirements.

9 Voltage Limitations Overall system voltages as well local voltage levels must be maintained within a set range of minimum and maximum limits. In general maximum voltage limits are set to prevent damage or accelerated aging of the power system or customer facilities, whilst minimum limits are set to prevent a single fault from resulting in a collapse of system voltage which would result in a partial or complete blackout of the interconnected network. Voltage collapse is closely linked to the balance between reactive power demand and resources. A highly simplified explanation is that heavily loaded lines, and loads (inductive), can be seen as reactive consumers, while lightly loaded lines and production units can be seen as reactive providers. For this reason limitations related to voltage stability can vary dependant on variations in load and production distribution.

10 Rotor Angle Stability Limitations The transmission network must, after a disturbance, also be able to withstand transient events ranging from a few milliseconds to a matter of minutes. The generators within the interconnected synchronous system are set operate together at 50 Hz. After a disturbance the generators may oscillate with respect to each other. These oscillations may impact system parameters such as frequency, power flows, and voltages. For the system to return to a stable state of operation, these oscillations must be attenuated and a new stable point of operation attained. If the system cannot quickly return to a stable point of operation, synchronization between generators may be lost and the interconnected system could entirely or partly become unstable.


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