1 Properties OF SOME PARTICULAR solutions . Properties of particular solutions .. 1. Annex 1. Salt water solutions .. 2. Solubility and phase 2. Density and other Properties .. 4. The melting of ice on fresh water, on sea water, and on a salt layer .. 6. Annex 2. Sugar water solutions .. 8. Solubility and phase 9. Density and other Properties .. 10. Annex 3. Alcohol water solutions .. 11. Solubility and phase 11. Density and other Properties .. 13. Antifreeze .. 13. Annex 4. Hydrogen-peroxide water solutions .. 16. Annex 5. Ammonia water solutions .. 18. Annex 6. Carbon-dioxide water solutions .. 20. Carbon dioxide: sources, detection, and Properties .. 20. Solubility and phase 22.
2 Carbonated water .. 25. Kinetic effects .. 27. Application of CO2 to supercritical extraction of solutes .. 29. Properties of particular solutions A general view on solutions is presented aside, and assumed to be known. Now we present in more detail some particular solutions (as separate annexes bound together), to better grasp the variety of situations that may arise. The rational for the selection has been: Solids dissolved in water: the salt-water and the sugar-water systems are chosen, as the most proximate to everybody's experience. They both show limits of solubility, as all solid-liquid mixtures, but one is electrolytic and the other not. Liquids dissolved in water: the alcohol-water and the hydrogen peroxide-water systems are chosen, as examples of totally miscible liquids of very different applications: one is a fuel and the other an oxidiser.
3 Gases dissolved in water: the ammonia-water and the carbon dioxide-water systems are chosen, as examples of highly soluble gases (the oxygen-water or air-water systems are more important but their phase diagrams are less appealing. Additional data useful to many other solutions can be found in tabulated data on solutions . Properties of some particular solutions 1. Annex 1. Salt water solutions We study here basically aqueous solutions of common salt (NaCl, M= + kg/mol), water / sodium-chloride liquid mixtures, called brines. Although the main motivation is the study of sea water (that to a first approximation seawater with salts is a molal NaCl solution in water), common salt solutions have other interests: freezing mixtures, food conditioning, body fluids, de-icing (salt has been used as the most cost-effective road de-icer, since the mid 20th century).)
4 Pure water and pure sodium-chloride Properties are compiled in Table 1. Table 1. Properties of pure substances at 15 C and 100 kPa, or at the phase change at 100 kPa. Substance Molar Melting Boiling Melting Boiling Density Thermal Sound Thermal Thermal mass. temp. temp. enthalpy enthalpy (mass) expansion speed capacity conductivity M Tf Tb hsl hlv .106 c c k kg/mol K K kJ/kg kJ/kg kg/m3 K-1 m/s J/(kg K) W/(m K). Water 273 373 333 2260 999 150 1500 4180 Ice 273 373 333 2260 921 150 3500 2040 Salt 1074 1690 496 2970 2170* 130 850 Molten salt 1074 1690 1490 110 1440 *Density refers to a single-crystal sample of halite; granular material show lower densities according to the void fraction (typical values for table salt may be kg/m3; and around 890 kg/m3 for table sugar).
5 Solubility and phase diagram Water can only dissolve up to of NaCl at 15 C, slightly increasing with temperature; see the phase diagram is presented in Fig. 1. The interest is just on liquid solutions , since the components do not mix in the solid state, and the amount of salt vapours can be neglected below say 1000 C. It is important to stir the mixture to have a quick mixing, otherwise, water left alone over a salt layer would take many days to dissolve. Fig. 1. Salt water solutions phase diagram at 100 kPa (NaCl - H2O). E, eutectic point. Properties of some particular solutions 2. Four solid phases appear in this phase diagram (and only one liquid phase). Besides H2O(s) and NaCl(s), the di-hydrate NaCl 2H2O(s) ( =1630 kg/m3) and the eutectic phase may appear.
6 The eutectic phase is not a solid solution but a solid mixture of fixed composition of the two components H2O(s) and NaCl 2H2O(s); at the eutectic point, E ( , C), three phases exist in equilibrium: H2O(s), NaCl 2H2O(s) and the liquid solution. The solidification enthalpy drops from 333 kJ/kg for pure water at 0 C to 235 kJ/kg at the eutectic point. NaCl has a solubility of kg per litre of pure water at 15 C (if more salt is added, it settles), producing a brine with yNaCl= , =1204 kg/m3 (Fig. 1). This brine boils at 108 C (unsaturated), starts freezing at + C forming di-hydrate crystals, and ends freezing at C (the last crystals having yNaCl= ; see Fig. 1). Solubility slightly increases with temperature, almost linearly from kg/L of water at 0 C to kg/L of water at 100 C.
7 Table 2 presents a summary of solubility values in different units for NaCl in water at 15 C. Table 2. Summary of solubility values for NaCl in water at 15 C. Value Comment Seawater concentration 3. 356 kg/m of water Mass of solute per unit volume of solvent kg/L solvent = kg/L of water ( kg/kg of water) ( Mass of solute per unit mass of water) ( 35 g/kg solvent). y= Mass of solute per unit mass of solution 35 g/kg solution = mol/kg of water Moles of solute per unit mass of solvent mol/kg solvent ( m). = m ( molal). 5600 mol/m3 of solution Moles of solute per unit volume of solution mol/L solution ( M). = M ( molar). Many important fluids, particularly in bioscience, are salt-water solutions .
8 Blood plasma is basically a M aqueous NaCl solution. Urine is also a water/salt solution. Normal urine composition is 950 g/L H2O + 20. g/L urea + 10 g/L NaCl + The yellow colour is due to the presence of urochrome, a pigment derived from the breakdown of haemoglobin. Its density is in the range = kg/m3, according to salt concentration. The average pH of urine is 6 but ranges from to Pure urea is a solid CO(NH)2)2(s), M= kg/mol, cp=93 J/(mol K), that has a heating value PCS=632 kJ/mol. Question 1. Why seawater is bad for drinking? Answer: A small gulp is not so bad (there are some people accustomed to drink a cup of seawater each day), but by the litre it causes dehydration by osmosis (body fluids with ysal=4 try to dilute seawater, ysal=35 , in the digestive truck).
9 Sea ice may have an average of ysal=10 as trapped brine droplets, decreasing with time because of seepage (one-year-old sea-ice is god for drinking). Sea animals do not dehydrate by osmosis because they segregate an oily mucus (that makes them slippery) to increase insulation. Desalination of seawater and other salty solutions may be done by different methods, by reverse osmosis ( forcing the brine across a semi-permeable membrane), by distillation ( boiling and condensation). usually under vacuum, by freezing, by spraying the brine on hot air (the water evaporates quickly, leaving a salt dust, and the vapours can be condensed), etc. Properties of some particular solutions 3.
10 As for other solutions , the freezing point refers to the first appearance of solid crystals when cooling the liquid solution, but this is not the end of the process; a salty solution like seawater starts to freeze at C, 75% of the water is frozen at equilibrium at 10 C, and there remains some liquid down to 21 C (the eutectic point for NaCl / H2O (some seawater is liquid even down to 70 C because of the effect of other dissolved salts). By the way, are ice-cubes made from seawater salty? When a salt-water solution starts to freeze, only pure water-ice is formed, but if the cooling rate is fast some salty droplets may be trapped and give a salty taste; in any case, most of the salt would remain in the last regions to freeze (also for dissolved gases; that is why ice-cubes may show a whitish central core).)