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Public Health and the Environment World Health ...

WHO/SDE/WSH/07/0? Desalination for Safe water Supply Guidance for the Health and Environmental Aspects Applicable to Desalination Public Health and the Environment World Health Organization Geneva 2007. Table of Contents Tables vi Figures vii Preface viii Acknowledgements ix Abbreviations and Acronyms xi 1 Desalinated Drinking- water Production and Health and Environment Issues 1. water quality and Health issues 2. Drinking- water production and related issues 4. Source water composition 5. Fresh water treatment technologies 7. Desalination technologies 7. Distillation technologies 7. Membrane technologies 9.

WHO/SDE/WSH/07/0? Desalination for Safe Water Supply Guidance for the Health and Environmental Aspects Applicable to Desalination Public Health and the Environment

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1 WHO/SDE/WSH/07/0? Desalination for Safe water Supply Guidance for the Health and Environmental Aspects Applicable to Desalination Public Health and the Environment World Health Organization Geneva 2007. Table of Contents Tables vi Figures vii Preface viii Acknowledgements ix Abbreviations and Acronyms xi 1 Desalinated Drinking- water Production and Health and Environment Issues 1. water quality and Health issues 2. Drinking- water production and related issues 4. Source water composition 5. Fresh water treatment technologies 7. Desalination technologies 7. Distillation technologies 7. Membrane technologies 9.

2 Pretreatment 11. Post treatment 11. Technical and Health issues associated with desalination 11. Potentially Beneficial Chemicals 11. Contamination Issues 12. Source contamination 12. Petroleum and Products 12. Disinfection and microbial control in drinking- water 12. Disinfection by-products (DBPs) 13. Waste and concentrates management 13. Energy consumption 14. Environmental impacts 14. water Safety Plans in the operation and management of water systems 14. 2 Desalination Technology and Technical Issues Associated with Desalination 17. General description 17. Desalination processes and water quality issues 17.

3 water Safety Plans 17. Structure of this section 19. Source water intake facilities 19. General description 19. Pretreatment processes 25. General description 25. Pretreatment for thermal desalination plants 25. Chemicals used in thermal desalination processes 26. Source water pretreatment for membrane desalination 27. Chemicals used for pretreatment prior to membrane desalination 27. Thermal desalination processes 29. MSF desalination processes 30. ii MED desalination processes 33. Membrane desalination 35. Desalination by electrodialysis 35. Reverse osmosis desalination 36. Post-Treatment 40.

4 Stabilization by addition of carbonate alkalinity 41. Corrosion indexes 42. Corrosion control methods 43. Product water disinfection 47. water quality polishing 48. Post-treatment issues and considerations 49. Concentrates management 51. Concentrate characterization and quality 51. Overview of concentrate management alternatives 53. Discharge of concentrate to surface waters 54. Concentrate discharge to sanitary sewer 59. Concentrate deep well injection 61. Evaporation ponds 62. Spray irrigation 62. Zero liquid discharge 62. Regional concentrate management 63. Technologies for beneficial use of concentrate 63.

5 Management of residuals generated at desalination plants 64. Pretreatment process residuals 64. Management of spent pretreatment filter backwash water 65. Management of spent (used) membrane cleaning solutions 66. Small desalination systems 67. Small applications for thermal desalination 67. Small membrane desalination plants 69. Small stationary desalination plants 69. Mobile desalination plants for emergency water supply 70. Marine vessel (ship/boat) desalination plants 70. Off-shore seawater desalination facilities 70. Point-of-use systems 71. Recommendations: Desalination technology and technical issues 72.

6 Summary guidance 72. Research issues 78. 3 Chemical Aspects of Desalinated water 82. Chemicals and desalination 82. Chemicals in source water 83. Pretreatment 86. Chemicals from treatment processes 87. Post-treatment 88. Remineralization 88. Calcium/Magnesium/Cardiovascular Disease/Osteoporosis 89. Dietary supplementation 90. Distribution systems 91. Additional issues 91. Chemicals-related Health recommendations 91. iii Chemicals research issues 92. 4 Sanitary Microbiology of Production and Distribution of Desalinated 95. Drinking- water Sources and survival of pathogenic organisms 95. Monitoring for pathogens and indicator organisms 96.

7 Microbial considerations for desalination processes 96. Pretreatment 96. Blending source water with desalinated water 97. Reverse osmosis (RO) 99. Integrity of the RO system 99. Fouling and biofouling 100. Organic matter and growth of microorganisms in desalinated water 101. Thermal processes 101. Disinfection of desalinated waters 102. Storage and distribution of processed water 102. Issues with blending product water with other sources 104. Recommendations 104. 5 Monitoring, Surveillance and Regulation 108. Validation 109. Operational monitoring 109. Verification 110. Surveillance 110.

8 Operational monitoring for desalination 110. Source water 111. Marine waters 112. Brackish surface or groundwaters 112. Operational monitoring parameters 113. Pretreatment 114. Membrane processes 114. Thermal processes MSF and MED 115. Treatment 116. Membrane processes 116. Thermal processes 117. Blending and remineralisation 117. Operational Parameters 118. Post treatment disinfection 119. Operational Parameters 119. Storage and distribution 119. Discharges including concentrates, cooling water , pretreatment 120. residuals and membrane cleaning solutions Operational parameters 121. Verification 121.

9 Quality control, calibration and methods of analysis 123. Additives and chemicals 123. Monitoring equipment, sampling, laboratories and 123. methods of analysis Monitoring plans and results 124. Surveillance 125. iv Regulation 125. Box Case study Regulations 126. Monitoring Recommendations: Suggested operational monitoring 128. parameters and frequencies for desalination plants 6 Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) of Desalination Projects 134. Potential environmental impacts of desalination projects 136. Concept and methodology of EIA in general and in desalination 136. projects Introduction 136.

10 Systematic EIA process for desalination projects 137. Step 1 Screening of the project 140. Step 2 Scoping of the proposed desalination project 142. Step 3 Identification and description of policy and 148. administrative aspects Step 4 Investigation and description of the proposed 148. desalination project Step 5 Investigation and evaluation of environmental baseline 148. Step 6 Investigation and evaluation of potential impacts of 149. the project Step 7 Mitigation of negative effects 151. Step 8 Summary and conclusions 152. Step 9 Establishment of an environmental management plan 152. Step 10 Review of the EIA and decision-making process 153.


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