1 T. he second half of the 20th century and the beginning of the 21st century have witnessed important changes in ecology, climate and human behaviour that favour the development of urban pests . Most alarmingly, urban Public health significance of urban pests Public health significance planners are faced now with the dramatic expansion of urban sprawl, where the suburbs of our cities are growing into the natural habitats of ticks, rodents and other pests . Also, many of urban pests city managers now erroneously assume that pest-borne diseases are relics that belong to the past. Xavier Bonnefoy Helge Kampen All these changes make timely a new analysis of the direct and Kevin Sweeney indirect impacts of present-day urban pests on health .
2 Such an analysis should lead to the development of strategies to manage them and reduce the risk of exposure. To this end, WHO has invited international experts in various fields . pests , pest-related diseases and pest management to provide evidence on which to base policies. These experts contributed to the present report by identifying the Public health risk posed by various pests and appropriate measures to prevent and control them. This book presents their conclusions and formulates policy options for all levels of decision-making to manage pests and pest-related diseases in the future. World health Organization ISBN 978-92-890-7188-8. Regional Office for Europe Scherfigsvej 8.
3 DK-2100 Copenhagen . Denmark Tel.: +45 39 17 17 17. Fax: +45 39 17 18 18. E-mail: Web site: Public health significance of urban pests Xavier Bonnefoy Helge Kampen Kevin Sweeney Abstract Contents he second half of the 20th century and the beginning of the 21st century have witnessed T important changes in ecology, climate and human behaviour that favour the development of urban pests . Most alarmingly, urban planners are faced now with the dramatic expansion of urban sprawl, where the suburbs of our cities are growing into the natural habitats of ticks, rodents and other pests . Also, many city managers now erroneously assume that pest-borne diseases are relics that belong to the past.
4 All these changes make timely a new analysis of the direct and indirect impacts of present- day urban pests on health . Such an analysis should lead to the development of strategies to manage them and reduce the risk of exposure. To this end, WHO has invited international experts in various fields pests , pest-related diseases and pest management to provide Foreword VII. evidence on which to base policies. These experts contributed to the present report by Executive summary IX. identifying the Public health risk posed by various pests and appropriate measures to prevent and control them. This book presents their conclusions and formulates policy options for all Introduction 1.
5 Levels of decision-making to manage pests and pest-related diseases in the future. 1. Allergic asthma 7. 2. Cockroaches 53. Keywords Address requests about publications of the WHO. Regional Office for Europe to: 3. House dust mites 85. PEST CONTROL - methods Publications 4. Bedbugs 131. INSECT CONTROL - methods WHO Regional Office for Europe urban health Scherfigsvej 8 5. Fleas 155. urban POPULATION DK-2100 Copenhagen , Denmark ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURE. 6. Pharaoh ants and fire ants 175. CITY PLANNING Alternatively, complete an online request form for documentation, health information, or for permission 7. Flies 209. Public health . health POLICY to quote or translate, on the Regional Office web site 8.
6 Birds 239. ( ). 9. Human body lice 289. ISBN 978-92-890-7188-8 10. Ticks 304. World health Organization 2008 11. Mosquitoes 347. All rights reserved. The Regional Office for Europe of the World health Organization welcomes requests for permission to reproduce or translate its publications, in part or in full. 12. Commensal rodents 387. The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opi- 13. Non-commensal rodents and lagomorphs 421. nion whatsoever on the part of the World health Organization concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.
7 Dotted lines on maps represent 14. Pesticides: risks and hazards 477. approximate border lines for which there may not yet be full agreement. The mention of specific companies or of certain manufacturers' products does not imply that they are endorsed or recom- 15. Integrated pest management 543. mended by the World health Organization in preference to others of a similar nature that are not mentioned. Errors and omissions excepted, the names of proprietary products are distinguished by initial capital letters. Annex 1. Abbreviations 563. All reasonable precautions have been taken by the World health Organization to verify the information contained in this publication.
8 However, the published material is being distributed without warranty of any kind, either express or implied. Annex 2. Working Group 565. The responsibility for the interpretation and use of the material lies with the reader. In no event shall the World health Organization be liable for damages arising from its use. The views expressed by authors, editors, or expert groups do not necessarily represent the decisions or the stated policy of the World health Organization. Graphic design: Pierre Finot Text editor: Jerome M. Rosen V. Public health significance of urban pests Foreword Recent developments in pest-borne diseases, such as cases of West Nile fever in the United States of America and the spread of Lyme disease in both Europe and North America, have signalled strongly the crucial need to carefully assess the potential threat of urban pests to Public and environmental health .
9 Also, modern living conditions, urban sprawl and emerging changes in climate make the spread of pests and pest-borne diseases increa- singly likely. The effects of these conditions and changes need to be properly monitored and understood. Moreover, the lesson learned from the outbreak of severe acute respira- tory syndrome (SARS) is that modern forms of transport enable infected travellers to move quickly from one continent to another, with the ability to arrive at their destination before any symptoms appear. This same speed of travel also enables pests to spread freely and quickly from area to area in trucks, boats and planes. These factors, together with increasing concern about pathogens undergoing mutation and changing their host spe- cies and mode of transmission, need careful scientific evaluation.
10 This report considers the significance of the main urban pests and the medical conditions they create, as well as the resulting economic cost of the burden of disease, when data were available. It also proposes technical and policy options for governments that desire to implement adequate surveillance and contingency plans. The report is based on contributions from international experts in the fields of pests , pest- borne diseases and pest management, invited by the WHO European Centre for Environment and health , Bonn. The office acted as secretariat for the working group. WHO is very grateful for the contributions of these experts and believes that the recom- mendations in the report, if implemented, will reduce the health hazards caused directly and indirectly in Europe and North America by pests and unhealthy pest control prac- tices.