1 united nations HIGH COMMISSIONER FOR refugees . POLICY DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION SERVICE (PDES). Refugee Education A Global Review Sarah Dryden-Peterson Ontario Institute for Studies in Education UNHCR /F. Noy University of Toronto November 2011. Policy Development and Evaluation Service UNHCR 's Policy Development and Evaluation Service (PDES) is committed to the systematic examination and assessment of UNHCR policies, programmes, projects and practices. PDES also promotes rigorous research on issues related to the work of UNHCR and encourages an active exchange of ideas and information between hu- manitarian practitioners, policymakers and the research community.
2 All of these activities are undertaken with the purpose of strengthening UNHCR 's operational effectiveness, thereby enhancing the organization's capacity to ful l its mandate on behalf of refugees and other persons of concern to the Of ce. The work of the unit is guided by the principles of transparency, independence, consultation, relevance and integrity. Policy Development and Evaluation Service Tel: (41 22) 739 8433. united nations High Commissioner for refugees Fax: (41 22) 739 7344. Case Postale 2500 e-mail: 1211 Geneva 2, Switzerland internet: All PDES evaluation reports are placed in the public domain.
3 Electronic versions are posted on the UNHCR web- site and hard copies can be obtained by contacting PDES. They may be quoted, cited and copied, provided that the source is acknowledged. The views expressed in PDES publications are not necessarily those of UNHCR . The designations and maps used do not imply the expression of any opinion or recognition on the part of UNHCR . concerning the legal status of a territory or of its authorities. Printed by UNHCR . Acknowledgements The eld of Education in emergencies is led with vision by numerous people, many of whom contrib- uted their ideas to the conceptualisation, design, analysis, and assessment of this review of Refugee Education : Pilar Aguilar, Allison Anderson, Neil Boothby, Alexandra Kaun, Zachary Lomo, Eldrid Midt- tun, Susan Nicolai, Gonzalo Retamal, Jenny Perlman Robinson, Nicolas Servas, James Simeon, Mar- garet Sinclair, Christopher Talbot, Nemia Temporal, Carl Triplehorn, James Williams; and two external peer reviewers, Dana Burde and Mario Novelli.
4 Masters students from the University of Neuch tel, Switzerland wrote detailed and thought-provoking case studies that informed this review with critical eld-based experience: Joanna Rahman, Laura Rezzonico, and Manon Wettstein. I would like to thank all those at UNHCR who assisted with the study: Eva Ahlen, Susanne Kindler- Adam, Nathalie Meynet, Audrey Nirrengarten, Annika Sjoberg, the staff in UNHCR eld of ces in Ma- laysia, Mauritania, and Uganda; and especially Ita Sheehy for her thoughtful suggestions on all stages of the review; Jeff Crisp for his commitment to this topic; and Esther Kiragu for her skilled oversight of the review from start to nish.
5 A particular thank you to Marion Fresia who worked closely with me on the methodology of the eld-based case studies and supervision of the Masters students and whose experience and knowledge provided key analytic insights. Any errors or omissions are my own. Table of Contents Acronyms .. 2. List of Figures, Text Boxes, and Tables .. 4. Executive 6. 1. Introduction .. 8. 2. The Development of Refugee Education .. 12. The mandate for Refugee Education ..13. Self-help initiatives and scholarships ..13. From scholarships to Education systems ..16. A eld of practice to a eld of policy ..17. Refugee Education as part of the EFA movement.
6 18. Refugee Education in the context of Education in emergencies ..19. 3. The Current State of the Field : Access, Quality, and Protection .. 22. Access is limited and uneven ..24. Quality is de ned and measured by ineffective standards ..30. Education is protective but only if it is of high quality ..32. Refugee Education faces large institutional, resource, and coordination constraints ..35. 4. Urgent Challenges to Refugee Education .. 42. Challenge #1: Urban Refugee Education requires an approach different from strategies used in camp settings..42. Challenge #2: Limited access to post-primary Education for refugees in both camp and urban settings has immense economic and social consequences, for both individuals and Challenge #3: There is a shortage of quality teachers and lack of structures, including remuneration and training, to retain them.
7 54. Challenge #4: The quality of Refugee Education , and how it is recognised, does not help children to make connections between schooling and their future livelihoods..58. Challenge #5: The inherently political nature of the content and structures of Refugee Education can exacerbate societal con ict, alienate individual children, and lead to Education that is neither of high quality nor protective..62. Challenge #6: Lack of nancial resources, and their inconsistency, as well as a shortage of educational expertise both within UNHCR and among Implementing Partners (IPs), limits progress in Refugee Education .
8 69. Challenge #7: There are challenges to coordination in Refugee Education , including complex power dynamics, which limit the productivity of partnerships..76. 5. Education as Durable Solution: Conclusions and 80. References .. 86. UNHCR November 2011 page 1. Acronyms AAH-I Action Africa Help-International ANC African National Congress CAR Central African Republic CARA Control of Alien refugees Act (Uganda). CNA Comprehensive Needs Assessment COPE Complementary Opportunities for Primary Education CRC Convention on the Rights of the Child CREPS Complementary Rapid Education Programme for Schools DAFI German-language acronym for Albert Einstein German Academic Refugee Initiative DIP Division of International Protection DOS Department of Operational Support DPSM Division of Programme Support and Management DRC Democratic Republic of Congo EFA Education for All EGMA Early Grade Math Assessment EGRA Early Grade Reading Assessment GER Gross Enrolment Ratio IASC Inter-Agency Standing Committee IBT Initial Budget
9 Target IDP Internally Displaced Person IIEP International Institute for Educational Planning INEE Inter-Agency Network for Education in Emergencies IP Implementing Partner IRC International Rescue Committee JPO Junior Professional Of cer JRS Jesuit Refugee Service MoE Ministry of Education MoU Memorandum of Understanding page 2 Refugee Education : A Global Review NER Net Enrolment Ratio NGO Non-Governmental Organisation NRC Norwegian Refugee Council NWFP Pakistan's Northwest Frontier Province OECD Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development PDES Policy Development and Evaluation Service PEP Peace Education Programme PSLE Primary School Leaving Exams RET Refugee Education Trust SADR Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic SGBV Sexual and Gender-Based Violence SMC School Management Committee TDA Targeted Development Assistance TVSD Technical and Vocational Skills Development UNESCO united nations Educational.
10 Scienti c and Cultural Organization UNHCR united nations High Commissioner for refugees UNICEF united nations Children's Fund UNRWA united nations Relief Works Agency for Palestinian refugees in the Near East UNV united nations Volunteers UPE Universal Primary Education YEP Youth Education Pack WUSC World University Service of Canada UNHCR November 2011 page 3. List of Figures, Text Boxes, and Tables Figures Figure Refugee participation in primary and secondary school (2009) as compared to global participation (2008) expressed in Gross Enrolment Ratios (GER). Figure 2008 Gross Enrolment Ratios (GER) for refugees and nationals in 39.