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Report of the United Nations Conference on the …

Report OF THE United Nations Conference ON THE .. /COMF 114/ R .. 1 HUMAN ENVIRO ENT Stockholm, 5-16 June 1972 United Nations NOTE Symbols of United Nations documents are composed of capital letters combined 'with figures. Mention of such a symbol indicates a reference to a United Nations document. '" '" '" The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat of the United Nations concerning the legal status of any country or territory or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers. 1 United Nations PUBLICATION Sales No. Price: (or equivalent in other currencies) CONTENTS Abbreviations.

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1 Report OF THE United Nations Conference ON THE .. /COMF 114/ R .. 1 HUMAN ENVIRO ENT Stockholm, 5-16 June 1972 United Nations NOTE Symbols of United Nations documents are composed of capital letters combined 'with figures. Mention of such a symbol indicates a reference to a United Nations document. '" '" '" The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat of the United Nations concerning the legal status of any country or territory or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers. 1 United Nations PUBLICATION Sales No. Price: (or equivalent in other currencies) CONTENTS Abbreviations.

2 " .. ~ & " ~ " " , t I ~ PART ONE Action taken by tbe Conference Chapter I. DECLARATION OF THE United Nations Conference ON THE HUMAN ENVIRONMENT II. ACTION PLAN FOR THE HUMAN ENVIRONMENT . A. Framework for environmental action .. B. Recommendations for action at the international level C. The Action Plan .. III. RESOLUTION ON INSTITUTIONAL AND FINANCIAL ARRANGEMENTS IV. OTHER RESOLUTIONS ADOPTED BY THE Conference . W orId Environment Day.. Nuclear weapons tests .. Convening of a second United Nations Conference on the Human Environment Expression of thanks .. V. REFERRAL TO GOVERNMENTS OF RECOMMENDATIONS FOR ACTION AT THE NATIONAL LEVEL VI. VII. VIII. IX. X. XI. XII. CONSTITUTION OF THE Conference .

3 PART Two Background PART THREE Proceedings of the Conference ATTENDANCE AND ORGANIZATION OF WORK A. Participants .. B. Opening of the Conference .. C. Election of the President .. D. Rules of procedure .. E. Election of officers other than the President F. Adoption of the agenda .. G. Constitution of subsidiary bodies .. BRIEF SUMMARY OF THE GENERAL DEBATE! ESTABLISHMENT OF THE WORKING GROUP ON THE DECLARATION ON THE HUMAN ENVIRONMENT ACTION ON REPORTS OF COMMmEES AND OF THE WORKING GROUP A. First Committee B. Second Committee .. C. Third Committee .. D. Working Group on the Declaration on the Human Environment E. Credentials Committee.. ADOPTION OF THE ACTION PLAN FOR THE HUMAN ENVIRONMENT ADOPTION OF THE Report OF THE Conference ill Page V 3 6 6 6 27 29 32 32 32 32 33 34 37 43 43 43 43 43 43 44 44 45 49 51 51 55 59 63 66 67 68 ANNEXES 1.

4 Report of the Credentials Committee .. II. Report of the Working Group on the Declaration on the Human Environment III. General principles for assessment and control of marine pollution .. IV. List of documents before the Conference .. V. Table showing the correspondence between the numbers of the recommendations as they appeal' in the Report and the numbers of the recommendations as adopted by the Conference .. Page 69 70 73 75 76 ACC ACMRR ACOMR ClAP ECA ECAFE ECE ECLA ENEA FAO GARP GATT GESAMP GIPME IAEA IAMAP IARC lATA IBP IBRD ICAO ICC ICE ICES ICSPRO ICSU IGOSS IHD ILO IMCO IOC ISSS TTU IUCN IUFRO IVIC IWG IWP LEPOR ABBREVIATIONS used in the Report of the Conference and in official Conference documents Administrative Committee on Co-ordination ( United Nations ) Advisory Committee on Marine Resources Research Advisory Committee on Oceanic Meteorological Research Interamerican Committee of the Alliance for Progress Economic Commission for Africa ( United Nations ) Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East ( United Nations ) Economic Commission for Europe ( United Nations ) Economic Commission for Latin America ( United Nations )

5 European Nuclear Energy Agency Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Global Atmospheric Research Programme General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade Joint Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Pollution (IMCOjFAO/UNESCO/WMO WHO/IAEA/UN) Global Investigation of Pollution in the Marine Environment International Atomic Energy Agency International Association of Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics International Agency for Research on Cancer International Air Transport Association International Biological Programme International Bank for Reconstruction and Development International Civil Aviation Organization International Computing Centre International Centre for the Environment International Council for the Exploration of the Sea Inter-Secretariat Committee on Scientific Problems Relating to Oceanography International Council of Scientific Unions Integrated Global Ocean Station System International Hydrological Decade International Labour Organisation

6 Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative Organization Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission International Society of Soil Science International Telecommunication Union International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources International Union of Forestry Research Organization Institute of Scientific Research, Caracas Intergovernmental Working Group Indicative World Plan Long-term and Expanded Programme of Oceanic Exploration and Research T MAB OECD SCOPE SCOR UNCTAD UNDP UNESCO UNESOB UNFPA UNICEF UNIDO UNISIST UNITAR UNRWA UNSCEAR WEI WFP WHO WMO WWW Man and the Biosphere Programme (UNESCO) Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment Scientific Committee on Ocean Research United Nations Conference on Trade and Development United Nations Development Programme United Nations Educational.

7 Scientific and Cultural Organization United Nations Economic and Social Office in Beirut United Nations Fund for Population Activities United Nations Children's Fund United Nations Industrial Development Organization World Science Information System United Nations Institute for Training and Research United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation World Environment Institute World Food Programme World Health Organization World Meteorological Organization World Weather Watch Part one ACTION TAKEN BY THE Conference Chapter I DECLARATION OF THE United Nations Conference ON THE HUMAN ENVIRONMENT The United Nations Conference on the Human Environ-ment, Having met at Stockholm from 5 to 16 June 1972, Having considered the need for a common outlook and for common principles to inspire and guide the peoples of the world in the preservation and enhancement of the human environment, I Proclaims that: 1.

8 Man is both creature and moulder of his environw ment, which gives him physical sustenance and affords him the opportunity for intellectual, moral, social and spiritual growth. In the long and tortuous evolution of the human race on this planet a stage has been reached when, through the rapid acceleration of science and technology, man has acquired the power to transform his environment in countless ways and on an unprecedented scale. Both aspects of man's environment, the natural and the manwmade, are essential to his well-being and to the enjoyment of basic human rights-even the right to life itself. 2. The protection and improvement of the human environment is a major issue which affects the well-being of peoples and economic development throughout the world; it is the urgent desire of the peoples of the whole world and the duty of all Governments.

9 3. Man has constantly to sum up experience and go on discovering, inventing, creating and advancing. In our time, man's capability to transform his surroundings, if used wisely, can bring to all peoples the benefits of development and the opportunity to enhance the quality of life. Wrongly or heedlessly applied, the same power can do incalculable harm to human beings and the human environment. We see around us growing evidence of man-made harm in many regions of the earth: dangerous levels of pollution in water, air, earth and living beings; major and undesirable disturbances to the ecolo&ical of the biosphere; destruction and depletion of Irreplaceable resources; and gross deficiences, harmful to the physical, mental and social health of man, in the man-made environment, particularly in the living and working environment.

10 4. In the developing countries most of the environ-m~n~al probl~ms are. caused by under-development. MIlhons continue to hve far below the minimum levels required for a decent human existence, deprived of adequate food and clothing, shelter and education, health and sanitation. Therefore, the developing coun-3 tries must direct their efforts to development, bearing in mind their priorities and the need to safeguard and improve the environment. For the same purpose, the industrialized countries should make efforts to reduce the gap themselves and the developing countries. In the industrialized countries, environmental problems are generally related to industrialization and technological development. S. The natural growth of population continuously presents problems for the preservation of the environ-ment, and adequate policies and measures should be adopted, as appropriate, to face these problems.


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