1 Resource GUIDE: Child Development Resources FOR Parents AND PROVIDERS Child Development describes the process of children accruing the ability to do increasingly difficult or complex activities as they grow older. Child Development is separated into five categories: cognitive, language, motor, sensory, and social and emotional. Cognitive Development is the process by which children think, learn, understand, problem solve, reason, and remember. Language Development is the process by which children learn to speak sounds, words, and sentences to communicate with others, and to use or understand body language, gestures, and what others say. Motor Development is the process by which children learn to use their muscles to move. It is separated into two categories: Large, or gross, motor Development when children learn to use their large group muscles to sit, stand, walk, run, keep balance, and change positions; and Small, or fine, motor Development when children learn to use small muscles in their hands to eat, draw, dress, play, and write.
2 Sensory Development is the process by which children hear, see, taste, touch, smell, and feel. Social and emotional Development is the process by which children learn to relate to others, such as having relationships with family, friends, and teachers; and how they learn to cooperate and respond to the feelings of others and develop control over their emotions. Parents and other adults, such as grandparents and Child care providers, play important roles in a Child s Development . The environment is also an important factor in Development because it stimulates learning. Providing stable relationships that are socially and emotionally nurturing, and environments that are safe and age appropriate are essential to healthy human Development . Parents and providers may have questions about how to support children s Development and how to establish developmentally appropriate environments.
3 This Resource guide is designed to help Parents and providers find information about the following topics: Developmental Milestones Social and Emotional Development Early Learning Promoting Cultural Diversity and Inclusion Health and Safety Teaching Materials and Learning Activities Curricula Book Distribution List The CCSSS Network does not endorse any non-Federal organization, publication, or Resource . Child Care State Systems Specialist Network, A Service of the Office of Child Care 1 Resource Guide: Child Development Resources for Parents and Providers December 2014 Developmental Milestones Back Developmental milestones are activities that most children are expected to learn how to do by a certain age. As a Child grows, he is expected to learn activities relating to his social-emotional, physical, cognitive, and speech and language Development .
4 The following table provides examples of some developmental milestones children from birth to 5 years of age should be able to accomplish by the end of each age range. Birth to 5 Developmental Milestones* Category Skills 2 months Social and Emotional Begins to smile at people Can briefly calm himself (may bring hands to mouth and suck on hand) Language/Communication Coos, makes gurgling sounds Turns head towards sounds Cognitive Pays attention to faces Begins to follow things with eyes and recognize people at a distance Movement/Physical Development Can hold head up and begins to push up when lying on tummy Makes smoother movements with arms and legs 6 months Social and Emotional Knows familiar faces and begins to know if someone is a stranger Likes to play with others, especially Parents Language/Communication Responds to sounds by making sounds Strings vowels together when babbling ( ah, eh, oh )
5 And likes taking turns with parent while making sounds Cognitive Looks around at things nearby Brings things to mouth Movement/Physical Development Rolls over in both directions (front to back, back to front) Begins to sit without support 1 year Social and Emotional Is shy or nervous with strangers Cries when mom or dad leaves Language/Communication Responds to simple spoken requests Uses simple gestures, like shaking head no or waving bye-bye * Information gathered from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention s Developmental Milestones section of its Web site at Child Care State Systems Specialist Network, A Service of the Office of Child Care 2 Resource Guide: Child Development Resources for Parents and Providers December 2014 Birth to 5 Developmental Milestones* Category Skills Cognitive Explores things in different ways such as shaking, banging, throwing Finds hidden things easily Movement/Physical Development Gets to a sitting position without help Pulls up to stand, walks holding on to furniture ( cruising )
6 2 Years Social and Emotional Copies others, especially adults and older children Gets excited when with other children Language/Communication Points to things or pictures when they are named Knows names of familiar people and body parts Cognitive Finds things even when hidden under two or three covers Begins to sort shapes and colors Movement/Physical Development Stands on tiptoe Kicks a ball 3 Years Social and Emotional Copies adults and friends Shows affection for friends without prompting Language/Communication Follows instructions with two or three steps Can name most familiar things Cognitive Can work toys with buttons, levers, and moving parts Plays make-believe with dolls, animals, and people Movement/Physical Development Climbs well Runs easily 4 Years Social and Emotional Enjoys doing new things Plays Mom and Dad Language/Communication Knows some basic rules of grammar, such as correctly using he and she Sings a song or says a poem from memory such as the Itsy Bitsy Spider or the Wheels on the Bus Cognitive Names some colors and some numbers Understands the idea of counting Movement/Physical Development Hops and stands on one foot up to two seconds Catches a bounced ball most of the time 5 years Social and Emotional Wants to please friends Wants to be like friends Language/Communication Speaks very clearly Tells a simple story using full sentences Child Care State Systems Specialist Network, A Service of the Office of Child Care 3 Resource Guide.
7 Child Development Resources for Parents and Providers December 2014 Birth to 5 Developmental Milestones* Category Skills Cognitive Counts 10 or more things Can draw a person with at least six body parts Movement/Physical Development Stands on one foot for 10 seconds or longer Hops; may be able to skip Although these milestones are based on age, achieving them varies from Child to Child . Parents and providers can help children reach developmental milestones by talking or playing with them, or providing an environment that stimulates Development . What are developmental delays? Developmental delay refers to a Child s inability to learn or master an expected activity within her age range. Developmental delays could be the result of either external or internal factors, such as a lack of environmental stimulation, premature birth, or a learning disability. Parents and providers can help children by learning the signs of developmental delay and knowing when to refer children to early intervention.
8 The following organizations provide information about developmental milestones and developmental delays. ORGANIZATIONS American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) Phone: 847-434-4000 Web site: AAP works to provide general health and well-being information for Parents of children up to age 21. The AAP Web site offers information about children s heath, including Development and developmental delays. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Department of Health and Human Services Toll free: 800-232-4636 Web site: Spanish Web site: CDC s mission is to protect and improve the health and safety of the general public. Its Web site offers information about Child Development and developmental delays at Talaris Research Institute Phone: 206-859-5600 Web site: Talaris is dedicated to discovering how children think, feel, and learn. It also produces a research-based timeline that can serve as a general guide to how children grow.
9 Child Care State Systems Specialist Network, A Service of the Office of Child Care 4 Resource Guide: Child Development Resources for Parents and Providers December 2014 What is a developmental screening? A developmental screening is a procedure for health practitioners, Parents , and Child care providers to identify whether children are developing within the expected typical range. Screening can result in earlier detection, identification, and treatment of developmental delays. The following organizations and online Resources provide additional information about developmental screenings, disabilities, and autism. ORGANIZATIONS First Signs, Inc. Phone: 978-346-4380 Email: Web site: First Signs is dedicated to early identification and intervention in childhood learning delays and disorders. The following Resources are available: Audiological Screening ( ), Autism Screening ( ), Developmental Screening ( ), Diagnosis and Treatment ( ), Hallmark Developmental Milestones ( ), Lead Screening ( ), Screening Guidelines ( ), Screening Tools ( ), Screening: Making Observations ( ), Autism Speaks Material en Espa ol Web site: Spanish Web site: Autism Speaks provides a wide range of information and Resources about autism in both Spanish and English.
10 Center for Parent Information and Resources Resource Library Web site: (in English and Spanish) The Center for Parent Information and Resources (CPIR) has a variety of Resources on Child Development topics. In addition, it houses the Resources from the National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities (NICHCY), a project that collected a wealth of Resources on disability topics but was recently defunded. Resources are available in English and Spanish. ONLINE Resources Delayed Speech or Language Development (October 2008), by Mary L. Gavin and Anne M. Meduri, for KidsHealth, Available in Spanish at Child Care State Systems Specialist Network, A Service of the Office of Child Care 5 Resource Guide: Child Development Resources for Parents and Providers December 2014 Assure the Best for your Baby s Physical Development ( ), by the Pathways Awareness Foundation, Developmental Screening ( ), a Web page hosted by the CDC, Social and Emotional Development Back Social and emotional Development is integral to all aspects of a Child s growth, including intellectual, physical, behavioral, and moral Development .