1 Review of Trauma Screening Tools for Children and Adolescents January, 2016. Reviews Prepared by Amy Wevodau, This document describes eleven Screening Tools designed to provide information about Trauma in Children and adolescents. The descriptions Review their intended purposes, administration formats, administration requirements, age ranges, samples on which they have been validated, and available evidence of their psychometric reliability and validity. The reviews were completed in 2015 at the Law and Psychiatry Program, University of Massachusetts Medical School. Screening Tools are brief measures designed to indicate that further assessment is recommended.
2 To qualify as a Trauma Screening tool , an instrument had to be described as allowing for administration and scoring within 20 minutes. Tools were included when they reported an administration time longer than 20 minutes as long as they described a time range that was consistent with the above ( , if the tool was said to require 15-30. minutes ). The tool had to be designed specifically as a stand-alone measure, not a scale within a multi-scaled instrument. The first document offers a table of brief information about each of the eleven Tools . Click here for the table.
3 It shows that the eleven Tools have been classified into three categories as follows. Click on each tool to obtain its comprehensive Review . Exposure Measures: Tools that screen for degree and/or type of exposure to events that have the potential to be traumatizing Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire (JVQ). Survey of Children 's Exposure to Community Violence (SCECV). Traumatic Events Screening Inventory (TESI). * In addition, the Massachusetts Youth Screening Instrument-Version 2 (MAYSI-2), a brief mental health Screening tool for adolescents, contains a scale for Traumatic Experiences among its seven scales.
4 Click here for a comprehensive Review of the MAYSI-2. PTSD Symptom Measures: Tools Screening for symptoms of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Child PTSD Symptom Scale (CPSS). Los Angeles Symptoms Checklist (LASC). Structured Trauma -Related Experiences and Symptoms Screener (STRESS). University of California at Los Angeles Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Reaction Index (UCLA PTSD-RI). Trauma -Related Symptom Measures: Tools that screen for a range of symptoms often associated with Trauma , but not specifically for the cluster of symptoms associated with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder as a psychiatric diagnostic construct Adolescent Dissociative Experiences Scale (A-DES).
5 Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment (CAPA). Child Report of Post-Traumatic Symptoms (CROPS) and Parent Report of Post-Traumatic Symptoms (PROPS). Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children (TSCC). Administration Administration Based on DSM. demographics Reading Level Qualifications Demographic Child welfare Consistency tInterrater/. Differences Test-retest JJ Samples samples Internal criteria format Target Costs time Exposure Measures JVQ 8-17 15-20 Youth- & Gender Free Training in No No* UNK n/a Total scores: = .80 Module 's = .22 . mins parent- and age assmt Aggregate scores: 1 (M =.)
6 63). reports norms = . (1-4 weeks). TESI 8-18 10-30 Parent & None Free Licensed MHP Yes No* 5th n/a = = min youth w/ exper. in (interview) Youth report: = - reports child Trauma r = . (based on (parent-child agree) Trauma type). SCECV 6-18 5-15 Parent & Gender & Free None Yes No* UKN n/a Total score: Total score: mins youth age effects = = .97 (2 weeks). reports Subscale scores: Subscales: = - = .47 - .85. r = .30/ < .40 (1 week). (parent-child agree). PTSD Symptom Measures CPSS 8-18 10-20 Self- & Age effect Free MHP with No No* 3rd- Yes Total & subscales: Total score: mins parent- assmt 8th =.
7 67 .91 r = .84. report experience Impairment scores: Subscales: = .75 - .83 r = .63 - .85. Impairment: r = .60 - .70. 84% diagnostic agreement over 1- 2 weeks LASC Unspe 10-20 Self- Gender Free MHP Yes No* UNK Yes Total score: In adult sample c-ified mins report effect = . (2 week): PTSD Index: Total score: r = .90. = . PTSD index: r= .94. Administration Administration Based on DSM. demographics Reading Level Qualifications Demographic Child welfare Consistency tInterrater/. Differences Test-retest JJ Samples samples Internal criteria format Target Costs time STRESS 7-18 UKN Self- None UKN UNK No Yes UNK Yes Total score: Not established report =.
8 92. Subscale scores: =..77 - .82. UCLA 7-18 15-30 Youth- & None Free MHP with Yes Yes 5th Yes Exposure: r = PTSD-RI mins parent- Trauma assmt (with = (6-28 days, total and report experience additi (parent-child agree) subscale scores). ons). Total symptom: = Symptom subscale = Trauma -Related Symptom Measures ADES 11- 10-15 Self- Slight Free None Yes No* 5th In part Total score: r = .77 (2 week, 17 mins report gender = .90 - .94 nonclinical youth). effect Subscales: = .64 - .85. CAPA 8-18 20-70 Parent- & None Yes Certification No Yes n/a In part Interview: = mins youth- required (inter- = = (PTE.))
9 View). hr report ( $600/pp) = - exposure). to (parent-child agree). score = - (parent-child agree PTSD). CROPS 5-18 5 mins Self- Possible Yes MHP Yes No* 3rd In part = .80 to .93 r = (4-6 wks, report age effect (to interpret) = community sample). (in JJ sample) r = (6 months in JJ sample). TSCC 8-17 10-20 Self- Gender & Yes Specialized Yes Yes 3rd- In part Total score: r = to mins report age norms training 5th = .77 .97 (Guidelines for required Subscales: interpreting change = .58 - .91 over time). Validity Evidence Exposure Measures: JVQ Youth who report more exposure tend to exhibit more mental health problems, including Trauma -related symptoms TESI In sample of detained youth, those with more extensive exposure reported more severe PTSD symptoms and psychosocial impairment Ability of TESI to predict PTSD is equivocal SCECV Youth with higher scores tend to report higher levels of family violence and maltreatment Higher scores related to indicators of poor psychological outcomes Elevated scores related to higher incidences of PTSD (r =.
10 35). PTSD Symptom Measures CPSS Higher scores related to more Trauma exposure and functional impairment Total scores discriminate diagnostic groups (d= ). Correlations with K-SADS (r = . ) and clinician diagnosis ( = .43). LASC Higher scores related to more extensive Trauma exposure Convergent validity with SCID (sensitivity 74%, specificity 77% and an overall classification accuracy ). STRESS Accurately identified 70% of youth meeting probably PTSD criteria UCLA PTSD-RI Scores correlated with TSCC (r = ), K-SADS (r= ), CAPS-CA (r = ) and high incidence of Trauma exposure Higher scores related to behavioral problems across settings and attachment issues Trauma -Related Symptom Measures ADES Scores related to psychiatric impairment (but not necessarily PTSD diagnostic status).