1 SECTION 5. Methods of sampling and analysis SECTION 5 - Methods of sampling and analysis sampling sampling protocols should meet scientifically recognized principles and procedures analysis Laboratory Methods developed and validated using scientifically recognized principles and procedures should be When selecting Methods , consideration should also be given to practicability, with preference given to those Methods which are reliable and applicable for routine use. Laboratories conducting routine analyses of feed and feed ingredients should ensure their analytical competency with each method used and maintain appropriate Source: Code of practice on good animal feeding (CAC/RCP 54 2004).
2 52. Methods of sampling and analysis SECTION 5. 53. INTRODUCTION cedures and have the necessary knowledge of Important factors that determine the design products to be sampled, tools used in the sam- and implementation of a sampling programme pling process, adequacy and cleanliness of the involve shipment size, ingredient variability, labo- environment and sample storage container not ratory accuracy, cost of the essay and value of to allow contamination or deterioration of the the ingredient. Therefore, when defining the sample. sampling procedures one should consider the purpose of sampling , the laboratory analysis sampling process and equipment through which samples will undergo and the For the execution of the sampling procedures characteristic of the ingredients and finished proper tools and materials need to be available products.
3 To allow: sampling protocols should meet scientifically t 5IF PQFOJOH PG CBHT QBDLBHFT CBSSFMT ESVNT . recognized principles and procedures. containers, trucks, etc;. Laboratory Methods should be developed and t 5IF SF DMPTJOH PG DPOUBJOFST . validated according to scientifically recognized t 5IF MBCFMJOH UP JOEJDBUF UIBU B TBNQMF IBT CFFO . principles. removed;. sampling procedures will depend on the nature t 5IF TUPSJOH SFUBJOJOH BOE QSFTFSWBUJPO PG UIF . of the raw material, in process or finished pro- sample;. duct lots, conveying and sampling equipment. t 5IF MBCFMJOH PG UIF TUPSBHF BOE SFUFOUJPO . Prior knowledge of the product data and sam- container.
4 Pling resources allows the assignment of the t 5IF TBNQMJOH QSFDBVUJPOT SFRVJSFE CZ UIF DIF- appropriate sampling procedures. mical and microbiological Methods of analysis . The use of recognized international sampling All tools and auxiliary materials should be inert, Methods will ensure a standardized administra- and in a clean condition before and after their tive and technical approach and will facilitate the use. In the same manner, cleaning of the contai- interpretation of results of analysis related to lots ners to be sampled is to be considered prior to or consignments of feed. sampling . The feed industry uses a combination of tools GUIDELINES ON sampling for collecting samples.
5 Bulk trucks and rail ship- The objectives and sampling purposes to be ments of grains or soybean meal are frequently achieved should be clear when developing the sampled using a hand probe. Bulk containers may sampling procedures to be adopted. Examples of be stratified and multiple samples collected if objective that should be taken into consideration different portions of the grain are to be sampled. are the following: Slotted grain probes may be used to collect a t "DDFQUBODF PG DPOTJHONFOUT representative sample from grain, soybean meal t 5 FTUJOH GPS CBUDI SFMFBTF or finished feed. The grain probe should be long t $POUSPM PG SBX NBUFSJBMT enough to penetrate at least of the depth t $POUSPM PG JO QSPDFTT QSPEVDUT of the feedsingtuff.
6 Official grain samples are t 'JOJTIFE QSPEVDUT DPOUSPMT collected using a diameter probe that t 3 FMFBTF PG OPO DPOGPSNJOH QSPEVDUT consists of two tubes, one inside the other. The t 0 CUBJOJOH PG SFUFOUJPO TBNQMF inner tube is divided into compartments that t -FHBM EJTQVUFT enable the individual collecting the sample to t *OUFS MBCPSBUPSZ USJBMT detect inconsistencies in grain quality across the t 7 BMJEBUJPO PG BOBMZUJDBM NFUIPET profile of the carrier. This procedure is more labor t 7 BMJEBUJPO PG DPOUSPM NFBTVSFT intensive since the contents of the probe must sampling should be done in a well defined area be emptied onto a tarp or trough and inspected in order to avoid difficulties in the executing of before the grain is transferred into a container.
7 Procedures, reduce the risk of contamination and Open handled grain probes, in which the inner- cross contamination, enable the proper execution tube is not divided into compartments may be of laboratory analysis and include all necessary used for sampling feed ingredients including safety and health precautions to the sampler and grain. The probe's contents are emptied from the environment. handle and mixing will occur, making it difficult Personnel responsible for the sampling acti- to perform a visual inspection for load inconsis- vities should be trained on the applicable pro- tencies by depth. An open handled spiral probe Manual of Good Practices for the Feed Industry 54.
8 Is designed such that openings on the inside tube The Pelican grain sampler is used for on-line rotate around so it opens first at the bottom and grain sampling . The probe is a leather pouch, then in gradual steps to the top. This assures a approximately long, with a band of iron fair portion of the sample is collected across the inserted along the edge to hold the pouch open. profile of the material. The pouch is attached to a long pole. Pelicans are However, incorrect use of this probe can result designed to catch grain as the pouch is swung in the opposite effect if the inside tube is rotated or pulled through a falling stream of grain.
9 The in the opposite direction, resulting in a dispro- Pelican grain sampler is useful for sampling grain, portionate amount of sample collected from the soybean meal or complete feed samples while a top. The probe should be inserted into the grain truck is unloading. or feed ingredient at a 10-degree angle from Bag shipments of base mixes, premixes and the vertical, with the slots facing upward and medicated feeds should be sampled with a bag completely closed. A 10-degree angle is used to probe. Tapered bag triers are used to sample obtain a cross SECTION of the material, while pla- closed bags of powdered and granular commo- cing the end of the probe as close to the bottom dities.
10 Double-tube bag triers are constructed of of the carrier as possible. The slots must be kept stainless steel or chrome plated brass. These triers closed until the probe is inserted as far as it will are available in various lengths and diameters, in go. If the probe's slots are open as it enters the both close ended and open ended models and grain, a disproportionate amount of material may be used to sample closed and opened bags from the top will fill the probe. After the probe of powdered and granular ingredients. Single is fully inserted, the slots should be opened and tube, open ended bag triers are constructed of the probe moved up and down quickly in two stainless steel tubing and are used to sample motions.