1 Diesel injection PumpCOMMON RAIL SYSTEM (CRS)OPERATIONS eptember, 200700400534 ESERVICE MANUAL 2007 DENSO CORPORATIONAll Rights Reserved. This book may not be reproducedor copied, in whole or in part, without the writtenpermission of the HistoryRevision HistoryDateRevision Contents2007. 09 SCV: Explanation of compact SCV added to "Suction Control Valve (SCV)". (Operation: Referto page 1-30.) "Repair" section of ContentsTable of ContentsOperation Section1. GENERAL In Environment Surrounding The Diesel Engine .. On Fuel injection System .. Of And Transitions In ECD (ELECTRONICALLY CONTROLLED DIESEL) Systems .. Rail System Characteristics .. Rail System And Supply Pump Transitions.
2 Transitions .. Rail System Configuration .. 1-62. COMMON RAIL SYSTEM of Main Components .. 1-73. SUPPLY PUMP Type.. Type.. Type.. Type.. 1-414. RAIL Functions and Composition .. Part Construction and Operation .. 1-465. INJECTOR Description.. Construction and Features .. Operation .. Actuation Circuit .. Injector Component Parts .. 1-566. DESCRIPTION OF CONTROL SYSTEM Control System Diagram (Reference) .. ECU (Electronic Control Unit) .. (Electronic Driving Unit) .. Sensors .. 1-617. CONTROL injection Control.. System (Electric-Exhaust Gas Recirculation) .. Controlled Throttle (Not Made By DENSO).. Gas Control System .. System (Diesel Particulate Filter).
3 SYSTEM (DIESEL PARTICULATE NOx REDUCTION).. 1-82 Table of Contents8. Of The Diagnostic Function.. Inspection Using DST-1 .. Inspection Using The MIL (Malfunction Indicator Light) .. Body Function Inspection .. 1-869. END OF VOLUME Matter (PM) .. Rail Type Fuel injection System Development History And The World s Manufacturers.. injection Pressure, Optimized injection Rates, Higher injection Timing Control Precision, Higher injection Quantity Control Precision.. Of Combustion Chamber Interior .. 1-90 Repair Section1. DIESEL ENGINE MALFUNCTIONS AND DIAGNOSTIC METHODS (BASIC KNOWL-EDGE) State and Malfunction Cause .. 2-922. DIAGNOSIS Work Flow .. Malfunctions.
4 2-963. DTC READING (FOR TOYOTA VEHICLES) .. Check (Code Reading via the DST-2).. Memory Erasure (via the DST-2) .. 2-984. TROUBLESHOOTING BY System Diagnosis .. System Diagnosis .. of Electrical/Electronic Circuit Checks .. 2-1025. According to Malfunction Symptom (for TOYOTA Vehicles) .. Malfunction Symptoms .. 2-1226. DIAGNOSIS CODES (DTC) Chart (Example) .. 2-124 Operation Section1 11. GENERAL Changes In Environment Surrounding The Diesel EnginezThroughout the world, there is a desperate need to improve vehicle fuel economy for the purposes of preventing globalwarming and reducing exhaust gas emissions that affect human health. Diesel engine vehicles are highly acclaimed inEurope, due to the good fuel economy that diesel fuel offers.
5 On the other hand, the "nitrogen oxides (NOx)" and "par-ticulate matter (PM)" contained in the exhaust gas must be greatly reduced to meet exhaust gas regulations, and tech-nology is being actively developed for the sake of improved fuel economy and reduced exhaust gases.(1) Demands on Diesel Vehicles Reduce exhaust gases (NOx, PM, carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbon (HC) and smoke). Improve fuel economy. Reduce noise. Improve power output and driving performance.(2) Transition of Exhaust Gas Regulations (Example of Large Vehicle Diesel Regulations) The EURO IV regulations take effect in Europe from 2005, and the 2004 MY regulations take effect in North Americafrom 2004. Furthermore, the EURO V regulations will take effect in Europe from 2008, and the 2007 MY regulationswill take effect in North America from 2007.
6 Through these measures, PM and NOx emissions are being reduced MY2004 MY2007 MYEURO EURO EUROEURO EURO EURO1998 MY2004 MY2007 AmericaNorth America2005200820042007 Operation Section1 Demands On Fuel injection SystemzIn order to address the various demands that are imposed on diesel vehicles, the fuel injection system (including theinjection pump and nozzles) plays a significant role because it directly affects the performance of the engine and thevehicle. Some of the demands are: higher injection pressure, optimized injection rate, higher precision of injection timingcontrol, and higher precision of injection quantity control.< NOTE >zFor further information on higher injection pressure, optimized injection rate, higher precision of injection timing control,and higher precision of injection quantity control, see the material at the end of this Section1 Types Of And Transitions In ECD (ELECTRONICALLY CONTROLLEDDIESEL) SystemszECD systems include the ECD-V series (V3, V4, and V5) which implements electronic control through distributed pumps (VE type pumps ), and common rail systems made up of a supply pump, rail, and injectors.
7 Types are the ECD-V3 andV5 for passenger cars and RVs, the ECD-V4 that can also support small trucks, common rail systems for trucks, andcommon rail systems for passenger cars and RVs. In addition, there are 2nd-generation common rail systems that sup-port both large vehicle and passenger car applications. The chart below shows the characteristics of these '85'90'95'00 Large Vehicle Common Rail(HP0)(HP2)Passenger Car Common RailCommon Rail System Maximum injection Pressure 180 MPa Uses pilot injection to reduce the engine combustion noise Fuel raised to high pressure by the supply pump is temporarily accumulated in the rail, then injected after the injector is Types and Transitions Maximum injection Pressure 130 MPa Inner Cam Pumping Mechanism Maximum injection Pressure 100 MPa Uses pilot injection to reduce the engine combustion PumpInjectorRail The world's first SPV (electromagnetic spill valve system)
8 Is used for fuel injection quantity control, so the quantity injected by each cylinder can be controlled. Maximum injection Pressure 60 MPaQ000750 EECD-V3 ECD-V4 ECD-V5 Operation Section1 Common Rail System CharacteristicszThe common rail system uses a type of accumulation chamber called a rail to store pressurized fuel, and injectors thatcontain electronically controlled solenoid valves to inject the pressurized fuel into the the engine ECU controls the injection system (including the injection pressure, injection rate, and injection tim-ing), the injection system is independent and thus unaffected by the engine speed or the engine ECU can control injection quantity and timing to a high level of precision, even multi- injection (mul-tiple fuel injections in one injection stroke)
9 Is ensures a stable injection pressure at all times, even in the low engine speed range, and dramatically decreasesthe amount of black smoke ordinarily emitted by a diesel engine during start-up and acceleration. As a result, exhaustgas emissions are cleaner and reduced, and higher power output is achieved.(1) Features of injection ControlInjection Pressure Control Enables high-pressure injection even at low engine speeds. Optimizes control to minimize particulate matter and NOx Timing Control Enables finely tuned optimized control in accordance with driving Rate Control Pilot injection control injects a small amount of fuel before the main injection . injection pressure is more than double the current pressure.
10 Which makes it possible to greatly reduce particulate Rail SystemInjection Pressure ControlInjection Timing ControlInjection Rate ControlInjection Quantity Control Electronic Control TypeCommon Rail System Conventional PumpOptimized and Higher PressureSpeedSpeed injection QuantityInjection PressurePre-InjectionPilot injectionAfter-InjectionPost-InjectionMa in Injection1324 injection PressureParticulateInjection RateCrankshaft AngleCylinder injection Quantity CorrectionInjection QuantityAdvance AngleQ000751 EOperation Section1 Common Rail System And Supply Pump TransitionszThe world's first common rail system for trucks was introduced in 1995. In 1999, the common rail system for passengercars (the HP2 supply pump) was introduced, and then in 2001 a common rail system using the HP3 pump (a lighter andmore compact supply pump) was introduced.