1 Social and Economic Conditions of Student Life in Europe DZHW (Ed.). EUROSTUDENT VI 2016 2018 | synopsis of Indicators German Centre for Higher Education Research and Science Studies Funded with the support of all participating countries. Co-funded by the Erasmus+ programme of the European Union and the following bodies. Federal Ministry of Education and Research Social and Economic Conditions of Student Life in Europe German Centre for Higher Education Research and Science Studies ( DZHW ) (Ed.). Social and Economic Conditions of Student Life in Europe EUROSTUDENT VI 2016 2018 | synopsis of Indicators German Centre for Higher Education Research and Science Studies Funded with the support of all participating countries.
2 Co-funded by the Erasmus+ programme of the European Union and the following bodies. Federal Ministry of Education and Research This publication is available as a free download on Names of goods, company names and brand names used in this publication may be protected by property rights even if these rights have not been explicitly This publication has been published under the specified. The fact that names of goods, company following Creative Commons Licence: names and brand names are used in this publication does not entitle to assume that these names can be used freely.
3 The designations employed and the presentation of material in the maps in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the authors concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city, or area, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. Editor Design German Centre for Higher Education Research Marion Schnepf, and Science Studies (DZHW ). Authors W. Bertelsmann Verlag Kristina Hauschildt GmbH & Co. KG, Bielefeld 2018. Eva Maria V gtle Christoph Gwos Printed in Germany Order no.
4 : 6001920c Email: ISBN : 978-3-7639-5913-6 (Print). Website: DOI : Publishing House The authors and the publisher have thoroughly checked W. Bertelsmann Verlag GmbH & Co. KG the accuracy of the information presented in this pub- Box 10 06 33, 33506 Bielefeld lication. However, mistakes cannot be ruled out com- Phone: (+49-5 21) 9 11 01-11 pletely. Some information might have changed since Fax: (+49-5 21) 9 11 01-19 print production. The aforementioned parties, there . E-mail: fore, do not assume liability for the accuracy and com.
5 Pleteness of the information presented here. Bibliographic information published by the Deutsche Nationalbibliothek: The Deutsche Nationalbibliothek lists this publication in the Deutsche Nationalbibliografie. Detailed bibliographic data are available at Project sponsors This project has been co-funded by the Erasmus+ programme of the Euro . pean Union. This publication reflects the views only of the authors, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein.
6 Federal Ministry This project was commissioned and supported with funds by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research of Education and Research (Bundesministerium f r Bildung und Forschung, BMBF, grant agreement no. M521500). This project was supported with funds by the Dutch Ministry of Education, Culture and Science (MinOCW ). Members of the project consortium German Centre for Higher Education Research and Science Studies (DZHW ), Germany German Centre for Higher Education Research and Science Studies Kristina Hauschildt, Christoph Gwos , Matthias Liedtke, Eva Maria V gtle Institute for Advanced Studies (IHS )
7 , Austria Martin Unger, Angelika Grabher-Wusche, Georg Fochler, Berta Terzieva, Iris Schwarzenbacher, Daiga Kuzmane, Clemens Danler ResearchNed, The Netherlands Bas Kurver, Froukje Wartenbergh-Cras Praxis Centre for Policy Studies (Praxis), Estonia Hanna-Stella Haaristo National Commission for Further and Higher Education (NCFHE ), Malta Christine Scholz Fenech, Madonna Maroun Research and Higher Education Monitoring and Analysis Centre MOSTA , Lithuania Egl Ozolin i t , Kristina Masevi i t , Vaida aukeckien . Federal Statistical Office (FSO ), Switzerland Yassin Boughaba, Sarah Gerhard Ortega, Philipp Fischer EUROSTUDENT VI.
8 Country abbreviations In all gures and tables, the following abbreviations are used to refer to the participating countries. AL Albania IT Italy AT Austria LT Lithuania CH Switzerland LV Latvia CZ Czech Republic MT Malta DE Germany NL The Netherlands DK Denmark NO Norway EE Estonia PL Poland FI Finland PT Portugal FR France RO Romania GE Georgia RS Serbia HR Croatia SE Sweden HU Hungary SI Slovenia IE Ireland SK Slovakia IS Iceland TR Turkey 6. Contents A Background .. 9. A1 Foreword .. 10 A2 Introduction .. 12 A3 General methodological notes.
9 20 B Empirical findings and interpretation .. 25 B1 Characteristics of national Student populations .. 26 B2 Socio- Economic background of students .. 46 B3 Transition into and within higher education .. 66 B4 Types and modes of study .. 86 B5 Students' time budget .. 110 B6 Students' employment .. 128 B7 Students' resources .. 146 B8 Students' expenses .. 174 B9 Housing situation .. 198 B10 Cross-national Student mobility.. 218 B11 Policy considerations .. 243 C Appendix .. 247 C1 Glossary .. 248 C2 Methodological notes on figures and tables.
10 255 C3 Metadata .. 262 C4 References .. 268 C5 National contributors .. 280 7. Background A. Part A. 9. EUROSTUDENT VI. A Chapter A1. 1 Foreword From Reykjavik to Tbilisi, from Oslo to Valletta, and all over Europe today we have an opportunity to be acquainted with the latest insights and anal . yses of study Conditions as well as the role of Social and Economic char . acteristics of students in European higher education. Through almost two decades of EUROSTUDENT surveys, we have gained a better understanding of our students' Social characteristics, Economic , and study Conditions indicating signi cant changes in students' composition.