Transcription of State of Environment Report: Maharashtra
1 State of Environment report : Maharashtra (FINAL DRAFT) Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research Mumbai-400065 ( india ) State of Environment report : Maharashtra Sponsored by Maharashtra Pollution Control Board Ministry of Environment and Forests, Govt. of india Prepared by Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research, Mumbai Contents Front Cover Acknowledgements Abbreviations Executive Summary (i-vi) Chapter 1: Socio-Economic Profile of Maharashtra (1) Chapter 2: Water Resources and Sanitation (55) Chapter 3: Air and Noise Pollution (103) Chapter 4: Solid Waste management (143) Chapter 5: Forests and Biodiversity (167) Chapter 6: Land Resources and Degradation (187) Chapter 7: Disaster management (203) Chapter 8: Relevant Global and Other Issues (223) Chapter 9: Conclusions and Recommendations (245) References (265-277) Back Cover Acknowledgements Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research (IGIDR), Mumbai is thankful to the Maharashtra Pollution Control Board (MPCB), the Department of Environment (DoE), Government of Maharshtra (GoM) and the Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF), Government of india for entrusting it the task of co-coordinating and preparing the SoER.
2 At the very outset, we are thankful to MPCB officials, namely Shri B. P. Pandey, Chairman, Shri Mushtaq Antulay, Former Chairman, and Dr. Boralkar, Member Secretary, Dr Supate and Mr Saraf for their continued support for the preparation of this report . Shri Warade, Director, DoE, GoM has been instrumental in convening meetings to initiate the work, review the progress and arrange for crucial information, data and other literature from various Departments of GoM. We thank Dr. Sunil Pandey, Centre for Environmental Studies, The Energy and Resources Institute, New Delhi, for their valuable suggestions. Comments and suggestions made by the Core Committee members of SoER and by the participants during various meetings and workshops are highly appreciated. We are grateful to the concerned officials of various Departments of Mantralaya and Municipal Corporations (MCs) for providing us the Environment Status Reports (ESRs) and other documents.
3 In this regard, we thank Mr. Sunil Soni, Director, Directorate of Municipal Administration, Mumbai; Mrs. Manisha. M. Pradhan, Pollution Control Officer, Thane Municipal Corporation (TMC); Mr. Gharghe, Scientist in-charge, Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation (BMC); Mr. Srinivas Bonala, Planning Department Pune Municipal Corporation (PMC); Mr. Mule, Deputy Chief Engineer, Navi Mumbai Municipal Corporation (NMMC); Mr. D. N. Khamatkar, Municipal Commissioner, Kalyan Municipal Corporation; Mr. Aarote, Deputy Municipal Commissioner, Ulhasnagar Municipal Corporation; Mr Sharad Mahajan, MASHAL, Pune and Mr Vilas Kadi, Mahabal Enviro Enterprises, Aurangabad. Data and information from Mumbai Metropolitan Regional Development Authority (MMRDA) was also useful. Our own colleagues at IGIDR cooperated whole-heartedly and extended their support whenever required.
4 We are grateful to our Director Dr. for his continuous support and encouragement. The uninterrupted and timely help received from IGIDR s administration, library, accounts and computer departments are also acknowledged. SoER Team Members State of Environment report Maharashtra (Final Draft) Abbreviations AFM Advanced Forest management AGNI Action for Good governance through Networking india AID Association for india 's Development AIILSG All india Institute of Local Self Government. ALM Advance Locality management AMC Akola Municipal Corporation AQMN Air Quality Monitoring Network APDRP Accelarated Power Development and Reform Programme ARI Acute Respiratory Infections ARTI Appropriate Rural Technology Institute, Pune ARWSP Accelerated Rural Water Supply Programme ASI Annual Survey of Industries AuMC Aurangabad Municipal Corporation AWR Annual Water Resource per capita BAIF Bharatiya Agro Industries Foundation BCM billion cubic metres BEST Bombay Electric Supply and Transport Undertaking BMC Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation BMW Bio-Medical Waste BOD Biological Oxygen Demand BOO Build-Own-Operate BOOT Build Own Operate and Transfer BOT Build Operate and Transfer BPCL Bharat Petroleum Corporation Limited BPL Below Poverty Line BRIMSWDB rihanmumbai Stormwater Drain BSES Bombay Suburban Electric Supply BUTP Bombay Urban Transport Project BVIEER Bharati Vidyapeeth Institute of Environment Education & Research CAG Comptroller and Auditor General of india CBD Convention on Biological Diversity CBP Community Biogas Plants
5 CBMWTDFC ommon Biomedical Waste Treatment and Disposal Facility CDM Clean Development Mechanism CETPs Common Effluent Treatment Plants viiiCFCs Chloro Fluoro Carbons CIDCO City and Industrial Development Corporation CITES Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species CNG Compressed Natural Gas COD Chemical Oxygen demand COMPAS Coastal Ocean Monitoring and Prediction System COPD Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease CPCB Central Pollution Control Board CPT Candidate Plus Trees CRD Centre for Rural Development CRT Cathode Ray Tubes CRZ Coastal Regulation Zone CSIA Chatrapati Shivaji International Airport. CSO Central Statistical Organisation CSS Centrally Sponsored Schemes CTSDF Common Treatment, Storage and Disposal Facility C-WET Centre for Wind Energy Technology CWPRS Central Water & Power Research Station DDMP District Disaster management Plan DDT Dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane DFID Department For International Development DO Dissolved Oxygen DPAP Draught Prone Area Programme DTPS Dahanu Thermal Power Station EAS Employment Assurance Scheme EE Environmental Education EF Exceedence Factor EIS Environmental Improvement Society EM Effective Micro-organisms EOU Export-Oriented Units ESP Electrostatic precipitator ESR Environment Status report EST Environmentally Sound Technology EW East West Exim Export-Import FDA Forest Development Agencies FDCM Forest Development Corporation of Maharashtra FG Flue Gas
6 IxFGD Flue Gas Desulphurisation FIRE (D) Financial Institutions Reform and Expansion Project-Debt Market Component FO Furnace Oil FPC Forest Protection Committee FSI Forest Survey of india GCA Gross Cropped Area GDP Gross Domestic Product GEF Global Environment Facility GEMS Global Environmental Monitoring System GHGs Green House Gases GLOBE Global Learning and Observation to Benefit the Environment GoI Government of india GoM Government of Maharashtra GSDA Groundwater Surveys and Development Agency GSDP Gross State Domestic Product GQ Golden Quadrilateral HCs Hydrocarbons HCV Heavy Commercial Vehicles HP Horse Power HPCL Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Limited HSD High Speed Diesel HUDCO Housing and Urban Development Corporation Limited HW Hazardous wastes IBP
7 Institutional Biogas Plants IBRD International Bank for Reconstruction and Development ICEF india Canada Environmental Facility IDA International Development Association IDF Infrastructure Development Fund IDR india Development report IFW Interfacial Free Water IGWDP Indo German Watershed Development Project IH&RA International Hotel & Restaurant Association IIPS International Institute for Population Sciences IL&FS Infrastructure Leasing & Financial Services IMR Infant mortality rate INP Ichalkaranji Nagar Parishad IPCC Intergovernmental Panel On Climate Change IPM Integrated Pest management xIPP Independent Power Producer IRDP Integrated Road Development Project IRG-SSA International Resources Group-Systems South Asia Private Limited IRSA Institute for Remote Sensing Applications ISI Indian Statistical Institute IT Information Technology IWDP Integrated Wastelands Development Programme JBIC Japan Bank of International Cooperation JFM Joint Forest management JMC Jalgaon Municipal Corporation JNPT Jawaharlal Nehru Port Trust KfW Kreditanstalt for Wiederaufbau (German Bank)
8 KDMC Kalyan-Domivali Municipal Corporation KMC Kolhapur Municipal Corporation KWh Kilo Watt per Hour LCV Light Commercial Vehicle LDO Light Diesel Oil LISP Land Infrastructure Servicing Programme lpcd litres per capita per day LPG Liquified Petroleum Gas LSI Large Scale Industry LSHS Low Sulphur Heavy Stroke MBMC Mira Bhayander Municipal Corporation MCs Municipal Corporations Mcft million cubic feet MCBM Municipal Corporation of Brihan Mumbai MCGM Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai MDR Major District Road MEDA Maharashtra Energy Development Agency MEDC Maharashtra Economic Development Council MEPCO Maharashtra Environment Protection Consultancy Origination MERC Maharashtra Electricity Regulatory Commission Mfps Minor Forest Products MGWA Maharashtra Ground Water Authority mha million hectares MHADA Maharashtra Housing and Area Development Authority MIDAS Maharashtra Infrastructure Development and Support Act MIDC Maharashtra Industrial Development Corporation xiMINARS Monitoring of Indian National Aquatic Resources MIS Maharashtra Infrastructure Summit MJP Maharashtra Jeevan Pradhikaran MLD/mld Million Litres a Day MMB Maharashtra Maritime Board MMRDA Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority MNP Minimum Needs Programme MNES Ministry of Non-conventional Energy Sources MoEF Ministry of Environment and Forests, Govt.
9 Of india MOT Ministry of Tourism MoWR Ministry of Water Resources, Govt of india MPCB Maharashtra Pollution Control Board MPN Most Probable Number MRTP Monopolistic and Restrictive Trade Practice MSDP Mumbai Sewage Disposal Project MSDR Maharashtra State Development report MSEB Maharashtra State Electricity Board MSI Medium Scale Industry MSRDC Maharashtra State Road Development Corporation MSTI Maharashtra State Transport Information MSW Municipal Solid Waste MTDC Maharashtra Tourism Development Corporation MTPD Metric Tonne Per Day MUDP Mumbai Urban Development Project MVSS Maharashtra Van Sanshodhan Sanstha MW Mega Watt MWRC Maharashtra Water and Waste Water Regulatory Commission MWRPRA Maharashtra Water Resource Planning and Regulatory Authority NAAQM National Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Programme NAAQS National Ambient Air Quality Standards NABARD National Bank for Agricultural and Rural
10 Development NAEB National Afforestation and Eco-Development Board NAMP National Air Monitoring Programme NAP National Afforestation Programme NBP Night-Soil based Biogas Plants NBSSLP National Bureau of Soil Survey and Land Use Planning NC Nature Club NCAER National Council of Applied Economic Research xiiND Nuisance Detection NDP Net Domestic Product NEAC National Environment Awareness Campaign NEERI National Environmental Engineering Research Institute NFHS National Family Health Survey NFP National Forest Policy NG Natural Gas NGO Non-Governmental Organisation NH National Highway NHDA National Highways Development Authority NHDP National Highways Development Project NIO National Institute of Oceanography NLCP National Lake Conservation Programme NLRP National Lake Restoration Programme NMC Nashik Municipal Corporation NMMC Navi Mumbai Municipal Corporation NOC No Objection Certificate NOCIL National Organic Chemical Industries Ltd.