1 Mathematics: Strategies for Teaching Limited English Proficient (LEP). Students A Supplemental Resource to the K-12 Mathematics Standards of learning Enhanced Scope and Sequence Virginia Department of Education Division of Instruction April 2004. Copyright 2004. by the Virginia Department of Education Box 2120. Richmond, Virginia 23218-2120. All rights reserved. Reproduction of materials contained herein for instructional purposes in Virginia classrooms is permitted. Superintendent of Public Instruction Jo Lynne DeMary, Assistant Superintendent for Instruction Patricia I.
2 Wright, Office of Program Administration and Accountability Linda M. Wallinger, , Acting Director Roberta Schlicher, ESL Coordinator Lisa Eggleston, ESL Specialist Acknowledgements Shannon Bramblett, Migrant Education Specialist Maureen B. Hijar, Director, Office of Secondary Instructional Services Deborah Kiger Lyman, Mathematics Specialist, Office of Secondary Instructional Services Jane LeRoy, ESOL Instructional Support Teacher, Fairfax County Public Schools NOTICE TO THE READER. In accordance with the requirements of the Civil Rights Act and other federal and state laws and regulations, this document has been reviewed to ensure that it does not reflect stereotypes based on sex, race, or national origin.
3 The Virginia Department of Education does not unlawfully discriminate on the basis of sex, race, age, color, religion, handicapping conditions, or national origin in employment or in its educational programs and activities. The content contained in this document is supported in whole or in part by the Department of Education. However, the opinions expressed herein do not necessarily reflect the position or policy of the Department of Education, and no official endorsement by the Department of Education should be inferred. Table of Contents I.
4 II. Second Language Acquisition III. Misconceptions about Language IV. Cultural Differences in the V. Cultural Differences Related to VI. Strategies for Teaching Mathematics to LEP VII. Assessment Accommodations for LEP VIII. LEP Resources ..24. IX. Mathematics Resources ..26. X. I. Purpose This document serves as a supplement to the K-12 Mathematics Standards of learning Enhanced Scope and Sequence, which helps teachers align their classroom instruction with the revised Mathematics Standards of learning that were adopted by the Virginia Board of Education in October 2001.
5 The purpose of the document is to provide mathematics teachers with a brief overview of second language acquisition theory and suggest effective Strategies for differentiating instruction for Limited English Proficient (LEP) students. Differentiated instruction is particularly effective in helping LEP. students acquire English and meet academic achievement standards in content classes as it recognizes students' varying background knowledge and experiences, language, culture, learning styles, and readiness. Just as the school-aged LEP population throughout the United States has experienced significant growth over the past decades, so has the school-aged LEP.
6 Population in Virginia. Since 1992 the number of LEP students in Virginia public schools has more than tripled, resulting in LEP students residing in all eight regions of the state, speaking over 118 different languages, and representing over 72 countries. In addition to an increased number of LEP students, school divisions have also responded to the federal requirements under the reauthorization of Public Law 107-110, the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB). One of the performance goals of NCLB. requires LEP students to become Proficient in English while reaching high academic achievement standards in reading/language arts and mathematics.
7 NCLB also requires that LEP students participate in annual academic assessments in reading/language arts and mathematics, which are used to determine adequate yearly progress for schools, school divisions, and the state [Public Law 107-110, Sec. 1111(b)(3)(A)]. The rapid growth of the LEP student population in Virginia coupled with the increased federal accountability requirements under NCLB have resulted in an increased need for mathematics teachers to understand the unique needs of LEP students in their classes. The Strategies described in this document will provide mathematics teachers with effective practices for incorporating Mathematics Standards of learning and the English Language Proficiency (ELP) Standards of learning in daily instruction.
8 The ELP Standards of learning can be accessed through the Virginia Department of Education Web site at the following link: Superintendent/ Incorporation of these Strategies will increase the likelihood of LEP student success in the mathematics classroom. 1. II. Second Language Acquisition Research learning a second language is a complex process that develops in predictable, sequential stages. This progression closely mirrors the stages children go through as they learn their first language (Krashen & Terrell, 1983). During the initial period of learning a second language, LEP students may experience a silent period during which they concentrate on comprehension and respond using non-verbal means of communication (Krashen, 1985).
9 With increased exposure to the English language, LEP students progress through several additional stages of language acquisition. Following the silent period, LEP. students typically begin to produce one- or two-word responses and use short repetitive phrases. At the next stage, LEP students start to produce simple sentences and engage in basic dialogue. Within one to two years, LEP students begin to use more complex statements, can sustain longer conversations, and state their opinions. At the final stage of language acquisition, most LEP students can understand grade-level classroom activities, argue and defend academic points, read grade-level textbooks, and write organized and fluent essays (Krashen, 1982).
10 The chart below summarizes general behaviors of LEP students at each stage of language acquisition (Krashen, 1982). Stage of Language Acquisition General Behaviors of LEP Students Silent/Receptive Stage point to objects, act, nod, or use gestures 10 hours to 6 months say yes or no 500 receptive words speak hesitantly Early Production Stage produce one- or two-word phrases 6 months to 1 year use short repetitive language 1000 receptive/active words focus on key words and context clues Speech Emergence Stage engage in basic dialogue 1-2 years respond using simple sentences 3000 active words Intermediate Fluency Stage use complex statements 2-3 years state opinions and original thoughts 6000 active words ask questions interact in more lengthy