1 3. Excessive Stress Disrupts the Architecture of the Developing Brain WORKING PAPER 3. PARTNERS MEMBERS. Jack P. Shonkoff, , Chair Fernando D. Martinez, FrameWorks Institute Julius B. Richmond FAMRI Professor of Child Health and Regents Professor; Director of the Arizona Respiratory Center Development, Harvard School of Public Health and Harvard Director of the BIO5 Institute; Director of the Clinical and National Conference of Graduate School of Education; Professor of Pediatrics, Translational Science Institute; Swift-McNear Professor of State Legislatures Harvard Medical School and Boston Children's Hospital.
2 Pediatrics, University of Arizona Director, Center on the Developing Child, Harvard University Linda C. Mayes, National Governors Arnold Gesell Professor of Child Psychiatry, Pediatrics, and Pat Levitt, , Science Director Association Center for Best Provost Professor, Department of Pediatrics; W. M. Keck Psychology, Yale Child Study Center; Special Advisor to the Chair in Neurogenetics, Keck School of Medicine, University Dean, Yale School of Medicine Practices of Southern California; Director, Program in Developmental Neurogenetics, Institute for the Developing Mind, Children's Bruce S.
3 McEwen, TruePoint Center for Higher Hospital Los Angeles; Director, Neuroscience Graduate Alfred E. Mirsky Professor; Head, Harold and Margaret Ambition Leadership Program, University of Southern California Milliken Hatch Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology The Rockefeller University Silvia Bunge, Director, Bunge Lab; Associate Professor and Vice Chair, Charles A. Nelson III, Department of Psychology; Associate Professor, Helen Wills Richard David Scott Chair in Pediatric Developmental SPONSORS Neuroscience Institute, University of California, Berkeley Medicine Research, Boston Children's Hospital; Professor of Pediatrics and Neuroscience, Harvard Medical School Alliance for Early Success Judy L.
4 Cameron, Professor of Psychiatry and Obstetrics & Gynecology FORMER MEMBERS. Director of Outreach, School of Medicine, University of Buffett Early Childhood Pittsburgh W. Thomas Boyce, Fund Professor of Pediatrics and Psychiatry, Division of Devel- Greg J. Duncan, opmental-Behavioral Pediatrics, University of California, Distinguished Professor, Department of Education, University San Francisco; Co-Director, Child and Brain Development Child Welfare Fund of California, Irvine Program, Canadian Institute for Advanced Research Doris Duke Charitable Philip A.
5 Fisher, Betsy Lozoff, Foundation Professor of Psychology, University of Oregon Professor of Pediatrics, University of Michigan Senior Scientist, Oregon Social Learning Center Medical School; Research Professor, Center for Human Growth and Development, University of Michigan Palix Foundation Nathan A. Fox, Distinguished University Professor; Director, Child Deborah A. Phillips, Development Laboratory, University of Maryland College Park Professor of Psychology and Affiliated Faculty, Georgetown Public Policy Institute; Co-Director, Center for Research on Megan R.
6 Gunnar, Children in the United States, Georgetown University Regents Professor and Distinguished McKnight University Professor, Institute of Child Development, University Ross Thompson, of Minnesota Distinguished Professor of Psychology, University of California, Davis Takao Hensch, Professor of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Professor of Neurology, Harvard Faculty of Arts and Sciences; Senior Research Associate in Neurology, Boston Children's Hospital About the Authors The National Scientific Council on the Developing Child is a multidisciplinary, multi-university collaboration designed to bring the science of early childhood and early Brain development to bear on public decision-making.
7 Established in 2003, the Council is committed to an evidence-based approach to building broad-based public will that transcends political partisanship and recognizes the complementary responsibilities of family, community, workplace, and government to promote the well-being of all young children. For more information, go to Please note: The content of this paper is the sole responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the opinions of the funders or partners. Suggested citation: National Scientific Council on the Developing Child.
8 (2005/2014). Excessive Stress Disrupts the Architecture of the Developing Brain : Working Paper 3. Updated Edition. 2005, 2009, 2014, National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, Center on the Developing Child at Harvard University UPDATED EDITION - JANUARY 2014. The Issue the future of any society depends on its ability to foster the healthy development of the next generation. Extensive research on the biology of Stress now shows that healthy develop- ment can be derailed by excessive or prolonged activation of Stress response systems in the body and the Brain , with damaging effects on learning, behavior, and health across the lifespan.
9 Yet poli- cies that affect young children generally do not address or even reflect awareness of the degree to which very early exposure to stressful experiences and environments can affect the Architecture of the Brain , the body's Stress response systems, and a host of health outcomes later in life. Learning how to cope with mild or moderate feature of healthy development. Adverse events Stress is an important part of healthy child devel- that provoke positive Stress responses tend to opment. When faced with novel or threatening be those that a child can learn to control and situations, our bodies respond by increasing our manage well with the support of caring adults, heart rate, blood pressure, and Stress hormones, and which occur against the backdrop of gener- such as cortisol.
10 When a young child's Stress ally safe, warm, and positive relationships. The response systems are activated in the context challenges of meeting new people, dealing with of supportive relationships with adults, these frustration, entering a new child care setting, physiological effects are buffered and return to baseline levels. The result is the development of healthy Stress response systems. However, if Healthy development can be derailed by the Stress response is extreme, long-lasting, and buffering relationships are unavailable to the excessive or prolonged activation of Stress child, the result can be toxic Stress , leading to response systems in the body and the Brain .