1 CIHEAM. IAM MONTPELLIER. STUDY ON. SMALL-SCALE FAMILY . FARMING IN THE NEAR EAST. AND NORTH AFRICA REGION. FOCUS COUNTRY. Egypt STUDY ON. SMALL-SCALE FAMILY FARMING . IN THE NEAR EAST AND. NORTH AFRICA REGION. FOCUS COUNTRY. Egypt A. Aboulnaga, I. Siddik, W. Megahed, E. Salah, S. Ahmed, R. Nageeb, D. Yassin and M. Abdelzaher CIRAD CIHEAM-IAMM. The STUDY was coordinated at country level by Prof. A. Aboul Naga Emeritus Scientist, Agriculture Research Center Ministry of Agriculture and Land Reclamation Prof. I. Siddik Agriculture Economist, Monofia University Prof. W. Megahed Agriculture Economist, Ain Shams University Scientific coordinators: Jacques Marzin / Pascal Bonnet CIRAD. FAO Supervising officer: Alfredo Impiglia Delivery Manager Regional Initiative on SMALL-SCALE FAMILY FARMING for the Near East and North Africa Region Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Regional Office for the Near East and North Africa, Cairo, Egypt E-mail: Published by Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Center de Coop ration Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le D veloppment International Centre for Advanced Mediterranean Agronomic Studies Cairo, 2017.
2 The designations employed and the presentation of material in this information product do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the International Centre for Advanced Mediterranean Agronomic Studies Mediterranean Agronomic Institute of Montpellier (CIHEAM-IAMM) or the Centre de Coop ration Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le D veloppement (CIRAD) concerning the legal or development status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. The mention of specific companies or products of manufacturers, whether or not these have been patented, does not imply that these have been endorsed or recommended by FAO, CIHEAM-IAMM or CIRAD in preference to others of a similar nature that are not mentioned.
3 The views expressed in this information product are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of FAO, CIHEAM-IAMM or CIRAD. ISBN 978-92-5-109525-6 (FAO). FAO, CIHEAM-IAMM and CIRAD, 2017. FAO, CIHEAM-IAMM and CIRAD encourage the use, reproduction and dissemination of material in this information product. Except where otherwise indicated, material may be copied, downloaded and printed for private STUDY , research and teaching purposes, or for use in non-commercial products or services, provided that appropriate acknowledgement of FAO, CIHEAM-IAMM and CIRAD as the source and copyright holders is given and that FAO, CIHEAM-IAMM or CIRAD's endorsement of users' views, products or services is not implied in any way. All requests for translation and adaptation rights, and for resale and other commercial use rights should be made via or addressed to FAO information products are available on the FAO website ( ) and can be purchased through Cover photo: V ronique Alary TABLE OF CONTENTS.
4 Acronyms ..xi Executive xiv The importance of agriculture in the Egyptian 1. SECTION ONE. SMALL-SCALE FAMILY Existing typologies of SMALL-SCALE FAMILY FARMING .. 7. Defining small -holder 7. Legal entity of holdings in national 8. Farm holding 10. Land tenure in 10. General conditions of SMALL-SCALE farms of less than three feddans (SSF).. 12. Characteristics of SMALL-SCALE FAMILY FARMING (SSFF)).. 13. Cultural 14. FAMILY 14. FAMILY 15. Educational 17. Age structure of 18. Gender composition of the 20. Legal forms of land 21. Cropping patterns in 23. Animal 25. Full-time agricultural 26. Irrigation and drainage 28. Economic and social contributions of 30. Contribution of small holders to agricultural 30. Contribution of smallholders to plant and animal production and to food 31. Contribution of smallholders to 32. Contribution of SMALL-SCALE farmers to rural 32.
5 Market access and 33. Description of the variety of marketing 33. The marketing margins of 35. iii STUDY ON SMALL-SCALE FAMILY FARMING IN THE NEAR EAST AND NORTH AFRICA REGION. FOCUS COUNTRY: EGYPT. Producers' organizations and their respective role in supporting small 35. Governmental 35. Cooperative 36. Cooperative Water Wealth Union (CUWW).. 37. Civil society 38. SECTION TWO. Trajectory and dynamics of structural change in the agricultural 41. Demographic 41. Population distribution by 42. Urban/rural population distribution .. 42. Age distribution of the 42. General characteristics of the rural 44. Structural changes in the Egyptian 45. Changes in the contribution of the main sectors to 45. Changes in the structure of employment distribution between 47. Changes in the structure of agricultural domestic 48. Changes in cropping 48.
6 Social policy in rural 50. Pensions for small farmers and the landless .. 50. Quality of public services in rural contexts as compared to urban 51. Rural and small farmer populations in the context of political and legal 51. Agricultural projections .. 52. Sustainable agricultural and rural development (SARD).. 52. Long term strategic 54. SECTION THREE. Socio-economic policies and small 58. Historical modalities for gradually supporting 61. Policy Legal 61. Land tenure 61. Area limits of land tenure .. 61. Agricultural credit 63. Insurance 66. Pricing 67. Direct support policies for 69. Indirect support policies for rural and agricultural 72. Agricultural extension 73. Quality control 75. iv Case studies of some development projects targeting small 79. small farmer project (SFP).. 79. Resettlement and development of the High Dam lake community 80.
7 West Noubaria rural development project .. 81. Success 82. Perception of key stakeholders regarding small farmers in 83. SECTION FOUR. Synthesis of national 87. Outputs and recommendations of the national workshop (17 November 2015).. 87. Agenda for National Workshop on SMALL-SCALE FAMILY FARMING in Egypt, 17 November 88. List of 89. References ..90. 92. A. National Socio-Economic B. Consolidated Results of Agricultural C. Stakeholder v STUDY ON SMALL-SCALE FAMILY FARMING IN THE NEAR EAST AND NORTH AFRICA REGION. FOCUS COUNTRY: EGYPT. LIST OF TABLES. Table Evolution of agricultural GDP and total GDP (1984-85 and 2012-13).. 1. Table Annual growth rates of GDP (%) for major sectors (2002 03 to 2012 13).. 2. Table Agricultural and non-agricultural export values (million US$). from 2003-04 to 3. Table Evolution of the agricultural labour force from 1980 to 4.
8 Table Ratio of self-sufficiency of some food commodities as of 5. Table Number and area of holdings according to legal status in 9. Table Distribution of landholding (%) 2010 9. Table Distribution of SMALL-SCALE farms by holding size and number of plots (%).. 10. Table Evolution of percentage (%) of land holders and area according to farm size (1929-2010).. 11. Table Changes in the average farm size during the period 11. Table Number and area of holdings within the SSF class (<3 feddan).. 12. Table Average size of landholder families in 1990 and 2010 14. Table Number of FAMILY labourers working in their own holdings (thousands, 2010).. 15. Table FAMILY labourers per feddan for each farm size in 1990 and 2010 16. Table Landholders by educational status (%)(1990 and 2010 censuses).. 17. Table Distribution of landholders according to educational status of males and females (2010).
9 18. Table Age distribution of landholders (1990 and 2010 censuses).. 19. Table Number of male and female holders (in thousands) in 1990 and 2010 censuses Holding size (feddans).. 20. Table Percentage of holders (male/female) in 1990 and 2010 20. Table Land Holdings by Legal Status (1990, 2010).. 22. Table Cropping pattern changes between 1990 and 2010 censuses (%).. 23. Table Share of holding categories by crop category (% of total crop area).. 24. Table Percentage of holdings with and without large ruminants and number of large ruminants per farm (1990, 2010 censuses).. 25. Table Percentage of holders with and without small ruminants and number of ruminants per farm for each farm size (1990, 2010 Censuses).. 26. Table Percentage of holders who only depend on agriculture (1990 and 2010).. 27. Table Percentage of holders according to primary occupations in 27.
10 Table Distribution (%) of holdings that use different water sources and irrigation and drainage systems 2010 .. 28. Table Contribution (%) of permanent and temporary FAMILY labour on their own holdings (1990 and 2010).. 30. Table Percentage of livestock population in each holding category in 31. vi Table Major field crops cultivated, by (%).. 32. Table Estimated farmer share of consumer price (%) in 35. Table Population dynamics, 1882 2015 (in 1000's).. 41. Table Population age structure (%).. 43. Table Some indicators of rural /urban socio-economic 45. Table Contribution of different sectors to GDP, 1983-2013 (%).. 46. Table Employment Distributed by Economic Sectors (%).. 47. Table Contribution (%) of sub-sectors to the value of agricultural 48. Table Percentage of area allocated to different groups of crops (%).. 49. Table Investment allocated to agricultural sector, 1983 2013 (Million EGP).