1 Title 27 / SUBCHAPTER 11. SUBCHAPTER 11 [ ] 685 foundation piers foundations [ ] 686 Foundation Walls [ ] 687 Construction of Footings, TABLE OF CONTENTS Foundation Piers , and Foundation Walls [Sub-Art. Art. [ ] Art. 7 Pile foundations General or Sec.]* or Sec.** Requirements [ ] 688 Administrative [ ] Art. 1 General Requirements [ ] 652 Scope [ ] 689 Minimum Pile Penetrations [ ] 653 Standards [ ] 690 Use of Existing Piles at [ ] 654 Definitions Demolished Structures [ ] 655 Plans [ ] 691 Tolerance and Modification [ ] 656 Permits of Design Due to Field [ ] 657 General Requirements Conditions [ ] 658 Depth of foundations [ ] 692 Minimum Spacing of Piles [ ] 659 foundations at Different [ ] 693 Minimum Section Levels [ ] 694 Capping and Bracing of Piles [ ] 660 Slabs on Grade [ ] 695 Splicing of Piles [ ] 661 Construction [ ] 696 General Requirements for Installation of Piles [ ] Art.
2 2 Soil Investigations [ ] 697 Use of Uncased Concrete [ ] 662 General Pile Shafts [ ] 663 Borings [ ] 698 Where More Than One Pile [ ] 664 Test Pits Type, Pile Capacity, or Method [ ] 665 Boring Methods of Pile Installation is Used [ ] 666 Probings and Geophysical [ ] 699 Pile Materials Explorations [ ] Art. 8 Pile foundations -Loads [ ] 667 Existing Borings [ ] 700 Allowable Axial Load [ ] Art. 3 Foundation Loads [ ] 701 Allowable Lateral Load [ ] 668 Soil Bearing Pressures [ ] 702 Uplift Capacity [ ] 669 Pile Reactions [ ] Art. 9 Pile Driving Operations [ ] 670 Lateral Loads [ ] 703 Exceptions [ ] 671 Eccentricities [ ] 704 Equipment [ ] 672 Uplift Forces [ ] 705 Procedures [ ] 673 Impact [ ] Art. 10 Pile Types-Specific [ ] 674 Stability Requirements [ ] Art. 4 Allowable Soil Bearing [ ] 706 Scope Pressures [ ] 707 Timber Piles [ ] 675 Classification of Soil [ ] 708 Precast Concrete Piles Materials (Including Prestressed Sections).
3 [ ] 676 Satisfactory Bearing [ ] 709 Cast-In-Place Concrete Piles Material [ ] 710 Compacted Concrete Piles [ ] 677 Nominally Unsatisfactory [ ] 711 Steel H Sections Bearing Material [ ] 712 Concrete-Filled Pipe Piles [ ] 678 Allowable Soil Bearing [ ] 713 Caisson Piles Pressures [ ] 714 Composite Piles [ ] 679 Bearing Capacity of [ ] Art. 11 Underpinning Nominally Unsatisfactory [ ] 715 General Requirements Bearing Materials [ ] 716 Use of Rock Support in Lieu [ ] 680 Utility Services of Underpinning [ ] Art. 5 Soil Load Bearing Tests [ ] Art. 12 Stability [ ] 681 Applicability [ ] 717 General [ ] 682 Procedure [ ] 718 Factor of Safety [ ] Art. 6 Footings, Foundation Piers , [ ] Art. 13 Inspection and Foundation Walls [ ] 719 General [ ] 683 Materials [ ] 720 Boring and Test Pit Operations [ ] 684 Footings [ ] 721 Piling 249.
4 Title 27 / SUBCHAPTER 11. [ ] 722 Footings, Foundation Piers , entire transmitted load will be distributed over the Foundation Walls and Pile Caps supporting soils at any depth beneath the Foundation at [ ] 723 Subgrade for Footings, unit intensities within the allowable bearing values Foundation Piers , and established in this SUBCHAPTER . In addition, foundations Foundation Walls shall be proportioned to limit settlements to a magnitude [ ] 724 Construction Required for or that will not cause damage to the proposed construction Affecting the Support of or to existing adjacent or nearby buildings during or Adjacent Properties or after construction. Buildings * C26 omitted from section numbers in this column. [ ] 27-658 Depth of foundations . - ** 27 omitted from section numbers in this column. (a) Footings and Pile The bottom surface of any footing, pier, pile cap, or other Foundation construction, LIST OF TABLES.
5 Other than grade beams, shall be carried down at least four feet below the lowest level of the adjoining ground Table No. or pavement surface that is exposed to frost, except as follows: 11-1 Unified Soil Classification (1) In refrigerator, cold storage, or similar areas, the 11-2 Allowable Soil Bearing Pressures depth shall be increased as required to find [sic] the 11-3 Allowable Compressive Stress for Pile Materials construction below the potential level of freezing in the 11-4 Minimum Driving Resistance and Minimum Hammer soil, or loss of heat from the soil shall be prevented by Energy for Steel H Piles, Pipe Piles, Precast and Cast- insulation, warm air ducts, circulating systems, or in-Place Concrete Piles, and Composite Piles (other equivalent means. than timber). (2) For Foundation elements resting on rock, the 11-5 Minimum Driving Resistance and Hammer footings may rest on the rock surface at shallower Energy for Timber Piles depths than those indicated above, provided that visual 11-6 Basic Maximum Pile Loads inspection of the rock surface directly underlying the bearing area shows it to be free of seams, cracks, or ARTICLE 1 GENERAL disintegrated materials that could serve as reservoirs for water and thus be subject to freezing.
6 [ ] 27-652 The provisions of this (3) For Foundation elements in the interior of closed and SUBCHAPTER shall establish minimum requirements for the heated buildings, or in cases where the soil underlying design and construction of the foundations of buildings. the Foundation is not subject to frost action, there shall In addition, within special flood hazard areas, and below be no mandatory minimum requirement for embedment. the regulatory flood datum, as described in article ten of (4) Mobile or portable buildings not more than one SUBCHAPTER four of this chapter, foundations shall conform story high may be supported on Foundation elements with the applicable provisions of reference standard RS 4-5. bearing at grade, subject to the following conditions: a. The building shall be supported on jacks, wedges, or [ ] 27-653 The provisions of other devices that will permit readjustment of level in reference standard RS-11 shall be part of this SUBCHAPTER .
7 The event of displacement. b. The bearing capacity of the underlying soil shall be [ ] 27-654 For definitions to adequate to support the building loads without rupture. be used in the interpretation of this SUBCHAPTER , see Where the building is to be supported on nominally SUBCHAPTER two of this chapter. unsatisfactory bearing materials, the provisions of sections 27-677 and 27-679 of article four of this [ ] 27-655 Plans. -For the requirements SUBCHAPTER shall apply except that, where the bearing governing the filing of plans and the work to be shown material is confined under pavement and the bearing on the plans, see SUBCHAPTER one of this chapter. pressure on the surface of the soil material does not exceed five hundred psf, special investigation of the [ ] 27-656 Permits. -For the requirements Foundation will not be required.
8 Governing equipment work permits and for equipment c. The bearing area shall be well drained and not use permits, see SUBCHAPTER one of this chapter. subject to inundation. d. The levels of the foundations shall be checked and [ ] 27-657 General requirements. - adjusted to compensate for displacements at least once Except as otherwise specifically provided herein, the every year, and the owner shall maintain a record of foundations of buildings including retaining walls and such work, available for inspection by the commissioner. other structures shall bear on, or be carried down to, (5) Where piles project above grade and displacement satisfactory bearing materials in such manner that the of the pile cap is prevented by interposing a space 250. Title 27 / SUBCHAPTER 11. between the underside of the cap and the ground, the [ ] 27-663 Borings.
9 -(a) Number. -At requirement for embedment of the cap below the level least one boring shall be made for every twenty-five of frost penetration, shall not apply. hundred square feet of building area or fraction thereof (b) Grade beams. -The bottom surface of any grade and, for buildings supported on piling of such type or beam shall be carried down at least eighteen inches capacity that load tests are required, one boring shall be below the lowest level of the adjoining ground or made for every sixteen hundred square feet of building pavement surface that is exposed to frost. area or fraction thereof except as indicated in paragraphs one through three of this subdivision. [ ] 27-659 foundations at different (1) For one- and two-family dwellings (appurtenant levels. -Where footings are supported at different structures such as garages, sheds, and porches shall be levels, or at different levels from the footings of considered as part of the dwelling): adjacent structures, the influence of the pressures under a.
10 Buildings supported on footings founded on soil of the higher footings on the stability of the lower footings class 8-65 or better. -For contiguous groups of four or shall be considered. Consideration shall be given to the more dwellings at least one boring shall be made for requirements for lateral support of the material supporting every four buildings. For isolated dwellings and for the higher footings, the additional load imposed on the contiguous groups of two or three dwellings, the overall lower footings, and assessment of the effects of site shall be explored by at least one boring or auger dragdown on adjacent pile-supported buildings. probing or, alternately, the site of each building shall be explored by one test pit carried to a depth of at least [ ] 27-660 Slabs on grade. -Slabs on eight feet below the level of the bottom of the proposed footings.