1 Sustainable Tourism for Development Guidebook Enhancing capacities for Sustainable Tourism for Development in developing countries Contract nr . DCI-MULTI-2011/280-663. This document has been produced with the financial assistance of the European Union. The contents of this document are the sole responsibility of UNWTO and can under no circumstances be regarded as reflecting the position of the European Union.. 2. The Sustainable Tourism for Development study has been prepared by the World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) with the financial support of the European Commission (EC) Directorate-General Development and Cooperation, within the framework of the project Enhancing capacities for Sustainable Tourism for Development in Developing Countries (Grant contract DCI-MULTI-2011/280-663).
2 The purpose of the project is to enhance a common understanding and commitment about Sustainable Tourism , and to demonstrate how it is a vehicle to foster economic and social growth, through the achievement of the Development imperatives, while minimizing negative social, cultural and environmental impacts. Beneficiaries and stakeholders of the study are: - EU officials working in the field of cooperation and Development ;. - Other beneficiaries: International Development Community; Policy makers, Tourism sector and its value chain; Civil Society Organizations.
3 Contact: World Tourism Organization (UNWTO). Capit n Haya, 42 - 28020 - Madrid (Spain). Institutional and Corporate Relations Programme Email: Tel.: +34 91 567 81 00. Fax: +34 91 571 37 33. Please cite this publication as Sustainable Tourism for Development Guidebook (2013). First edition: 2013. Copyright notice Sustainable Tourism for Development (2013). Reproduction is authorized, provided the source is acknowledged, save where otherwise stated. You may copy, download or print Sustainable Tourism for Development content for your own use and you can include excerpts from Sustainable Tourism for Development Guidebook , website and multimedia products in your own documents, presentations, blogs, websites and teaching materials, provided that the suitable acknowledgement of the source and copyright owner is given.
4 Where prior permission must be obtained for the reproduction or use of textual and multimedia information (sound, images, software, etc.) such permission shall cancel the abovementioned general permission and clearly indicate any restrictions on use. All requests for public or commercial use and translation rights should be submitted to This document has been produced with the financial assistance of the European Union. The contents of this document are the sole responsibility of UNWTO and can under no circumstances be regarded as reflecting the position of the European Union.
5 3. Table of Contents Acronyms 6. Foreword 8. Acknowledgements 9. Executive Summary 10. Introduction 12. The structure of the document 13. PART 1: GUIDANCE NOTE 14. 1 Sustainable Tourism as a Development Tool 16. 2 Key Issues for Sustainable Tourism 21. 3 Relating Tourism to Development Priorities 23. 4 Stages in Identifying and Executing Interventions 29. Starting Points in Practice 30. Assessment of the Situation and Identification of Needs 31. Selection of Interventions 32. Formulation of Interventions and Actions 34.
6 Implementation and Evaluation of Actions 34. 5 The Way Forward: Tourism in the Aid for Trade and Green Growth Agenda 35. PART 2: METHODOLOGY 38. How to Read and Use the Methodology 39. Using the methodology flexibly 42. PILLAR 1 Tourism Policy and Governance 43. The position of Tourism in Development policies and programmes 43. Tourism policy and regulatory framework 47. Tourism governance and institutional setup 54. PILLAR 2 Economic Performance, Investment and Competitiveness 65. Measuring Tourism and its contribution to the economy 67.
7 Trade, investment and the business environment 70. Brand, marketing and product positioning 74. Resilience and risk management 77. PILLAR 3 Employment, Decent Work and Human Capital 81. Human Resources planning and working conditions 82. Skills assessment and the provision of training 85. PILLAR 4 Poverty Reduction and Social Inclusion 92. An integrated approach to poverty reduction through Tourism 93. Strengthening pro-poor Tourism initiatives 97. The inclusion of disadvantaged groups in the Tourism sector 101.
8 The prevention of negative social impacts 104. 4. PILLAR 5 Sustainability of the Natural and Cultural Environment 109. Relating Tourism to natural and cultural heritage 110. Focussing on climate change 115. Enhancing sustainability of Tourism Development and operations 118. Measuring and monitoring Tourism impacts 123. PART 3: SITUATION ANALYSIS 128. 1. Introduction 129. 2. Tourism : growth and diversification 129. 3 Tourism a source of economic growth and Development 133. 4. Tourism - one of the ten sectors leading the transformation to the Green Economy 140.
9 5. Official Development Assistance (ODA) for Tourism 143. 6. Conclusion 144. PART 4: ANNEXES 146. Annex 1: Directory of Services 147-217. Annex 2: Country Development policy papers within international frameworks 218. Annex 3: Areas of Government Influencing the Sustainability of Tourism 220. Annex 4: Value Chain Analysis to measure impact on the poor 221. Annex 5: References 222. 5. Acronyms ATF Aid for Trade CO2 Carbon Dioxide DC Developing Country DMO Destination Management Organization DTIS Diagnostic Trade Integration Studies EIA Environmental Impact Assessment EU European Union FDI Foreign Direct Investment GATS General Agreement on Trade in Services GDP Gross Domestic Product GSTC Global Sustainable Tourism Criteria GVA Gross Value Added HR Human Resources HRD Human Resources Development ICT Information and Communication Technology ILO International Labour Organization
10 ITC International Trade Centre PPP Public-Private Partnership PRSP Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper TKZN KwaZulu-Natal Tourism Authority LDC Least Developed Country MSME Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises NGO Non-Governmental Organization NTO National Tourism Office OECD Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development PCM Project Cycle Management USD United States Dollars UNEP United Nations Environment Programme UNDP United Nations Development Programme SCTD Steering Committee on Tourism for Development SIDS Small Island Developing States SME Small and Medium Sized Enterprise SNV Stichting Nederlandse Vrijwilligers - Netherlands Development Organization ST-EP