1 TRANSIT COOPERATIVE Research PROGRAM. SPONSORED BY. The Federal Transit Administration tcrp Synthesis 12. Transit Bus Service Line and Cleaning Functions A Synthesis of Transit Practice Transportation Research Board National Research Council tcrp OVERSIGHT AND PROJECT Transportation Research Board EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 1995. SELECTION COMMITTEE. OFFICERS. CHAIRMAN. ROD J. DIRIDON Chair: LILLIAN C. BORRONE, Director, Port Department, The Port Authority of New York and New International Institute for Surface Jersey Transportation Policy Study Vice Chair: JAMES W. VAN LOBEN SELS,Director, California Department of Transportation Executive Director: ROBERT E SKINNER, JR, Transportation Research Board , National Research Council MEMBERS. SHARON D. BANKS MEMBERS. AC Transit LEE BARNES EDWARD H. ARNOLD, Chairman & President, Arnold Industries, Inc Barwood, Inc SHARON D. BANKS, General Manager, Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District, Oakland, California GERALD L.
2 BLAIR BRIAN J. L. BERRY, Lloyd Viel Berkner Regental Professor & Chair, Bruton Center for Development Indiana County Transit Authority Studies, University of Texas at Dallas MICHAEL BOLTON DWIGHT M. BOWER, Director, Idaho Transportation Department Capital Metro JOHN E. BREEN, The Nasser I Al-Rashid Chair in Civil Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin SHIRLEY A. DELIBERO WILLIAM F. BUNDY, Director, Rhode Island Department of Transportation New Jersey Transit Corporation DAVID BURWELL, President, Rails-to-Trails Conservancy SANDRA DRAGGOO A. RAY CHAMBERLAIN, Vice President, Freight Policy, American Trucking Associations, Inc (Past CATA Chair, 1993). LOUIS J. GAMBACCINI RAY W. CLOUGH, Nishkian Professor of Structural Engineering, Emeritus, University of California, SEPTA Berkeley DELON HAMPTON JAMES C. DELONG, Director of Aviation, Denver International Airport Delon Hampton & Associates JAMES N.
3 DENN, Commissioner, Minnesota Department of Transportation RICHARD R. KELLY DENNIS J. FITZGERALD, Executive Director, Capital District Transportation Authority Port Authority Trans-Hudson Corp JAMES A. HAGEN, Chairman & CEO, CONRAIL. ALAN F. KIEPPER DELON HAMPTON, Chairman & CEO, Delon Hampton & Associates New York City Transit Authority LESTER A. HOEL, Hamilton Professor, University of Virginia, Department of Civil Engineering EDWARD N. KRAVITZ DON C. KELLY, Secretary and Commissioner of Highways, Transportation Cabinet, Kentucky The Flexible Corporation ROBERT KOCHANOWSKI, Executive Director, Southwestern Pennsylvania Regional Planning PAUL LARROUSSE Commission Madison Metro Transit System JAMES L. LAMMIE, President & CEO, Parsons Brinckerhoff Inc ROBERT G. LINGWOOD CHARLES P. O'LEARY, JR., Commissioner, New Hampshire Department of Transportation BC Transit JUDE W. P. PATIN, Secretary, Louisiana Department of Transportation and Development GORDON J.
4 LINTON CRAIG E. PHILIP, President, Ingram Barge Company FTA DARREL RENSINK, Director, Iowa Department of Transportation WILLIAM W. MILLAR JOSEPH M. SUSSMAN, JR East Professor and Professor of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Port Authority of Allegheny County Massachusetts Institute of Technology MIKE MOBEY MARTIN WACHS, Director, Institute of Transportation Studies, Department of Urban Planning, Isabella County Transportation Comm University of California, Los Angeles DON S. MONROE DAVID N. WORMLEY, Dean of Engineering, Pennsylvania State University Pierce Transit HOWARD YERUSALIM, Vice President, KCI Technologics, Inc PATRICIA S. NETTLESHIP. The Nettleship Group, Inc MIKE ACOTT, President, National Asphalt Pavement Association (ex officio). ROBERT E. PAASWELL ROY A. ALLEN, Vice President, Research and Test Department, Association of American Railroads (ex The City College of New York officio).
5 JAMES P. REICHERT ANDREW H. CARD, JR, President & CEO, American Automobile Manufacturers Association (ex Reichert Management Services officio). LAWRENCE G. REUTER THOMAS J. DONOHUE, President and CEO, American Trucking Associations, Inc (ex officio). WMATA FRANCIS B. FRANCOIS, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and MICHAEL S. TOWNES Transportation Officials (ex officio). Peninsula Transportation Dist Comm JACK R. GILSTRAP, Executive Vice President, American Public Transit Association (ex officio). FRANK J. WILSON ALBERT J. HERBERGER, Maritime Administrator, Department of Transportation (ex officio). New Jersey DOT DAVID R. HINSON, Federal Aviation Administrator, Department of Transportation (ex officio). EDWARD WYTKIND T. R. LAKSHMANAN, Director, Bureau of Transportation Statistics, Department of Transportation AFL-CIO (ex officio). GORDON J. LINTON, Federal Transit Administrator, Department of Transportation (ex officio).
6 EX OFFICIO MEMBERS RICARDO MARTINEZ, Administrator, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (ex officio). JACK R. GILSTRAP JOLENE M. MOLITORIS, Federal Railroad Administrator, Department of Transportation (ex APTA officio). RODNEY E. SLATER DAVE SHARMA, Administrator, Research & Special Programs Administration, Department of FHWA Transportation (ex officio). FRANCIS B. FRANCOIS RODNEY E. SLATER, Federal Highway Administrator, Department of Transportation (ex officio). AASHTO ARTHUR E. WILLIAMS, Chief of Engineers and Commander, Army Corps of Engineers (ex officio). ROBERT E. SKINNER, JR. TRB. TRANSIT COOPERATIVE Research PROGRAM. TDC EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR. FRANK J. CIHAK Transportation Research Board Executive Committee Subcommittee for tcrp . APTA LESTER A. HOEL, University of Virginia LILLIAN C. BORRONE, Port Authority of New York and New Jersey (Chair). SECRETARY GORDON J. LINTON, Department of Transportation ROBERT J.
7 REILLY WILLIAM W. MILLAR, Port Authority of Allegheny County TRB ROBERT E. SKINNER, JR, Transportation Research Board JOSEPH M. SUSSMAN, Massachusetts Institute of Technology JAMES W. VAN LOBEN SELS, California Department of Transportation TRANSIT COOPERATIVE Research PROGRAM. Synthesis of Transit Practice 12. Transit Bus Service Line and Cleaning Functions JOHN J. SCHIAVONE. Guilford, Connecticut TOPIC PANEL. CAMERON BEACH, Sacramento Regional Transit District VLADAS EIKINAS, Stone & Webster Engineering, Inc. KEITH JONES, Central Arkansas Transit Authority STEVEN R. KELLY, Madison Metro Transit System FRANK N. LISLE, Transportation Research Board BART W. MANCINI, Federal Transit Administration RICHARD PAPRCKA, New Jersey Transit Bus Operations, Inc SY TECHNER, SSI Corporation JOHN P. WALSH, Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority Transportation Research Board National Research Council Research Sponsored by the Federal Transit Administration in Cooperation with the Transit Development Corporation NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS.
8 Washington, 1995. TRANSIT COOPERATIVE Research PROGRAM tcrp Synthesis 12. The nation's growth and the need to meet mobility, Project SE-I. environmental, and energy objectives place demands on public ISSN 1073-4880. transit systems Current systems, some of which are old and in need ISBN 0-309-05857-0. of upgrading, must expand service area, increase service frequency, Library of Congress Catalog Card No 95-061225. and improve efficiency to serve these demands. Research is necessary to solve operating problems, to adapt appropriate new Price $ technologies from other industries, and to introduce innovations into the transit industry. The Transit Cooperative Research Program ( tcrp ) serves as one of the principal means by which the transit industry can develop innovative near-term solutions to meet demands placed on it. NOTICE. The need for tcrp was originally identified in TRB Special Report 213- Research for Public Transit: New Directions, published The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the Transit in 1987 and based on a study sponsored by the Federal Transit Cooperative Research Program conducted by the Transportation Administration (FTA).
9 A report by the American Public Transit Research Board with the approval of the Governing Board of the Association (APTA), Transportation 2000, also recognized the need National Research Council. Such approval reflects the Governing for local, problem-solving Research tcrp , modeled after the Board 's judgment that the project concerned is appropriate with longstanding and successful National Cooperative Highway Research respect to both the purposes and resources of the National Research Program, undertakes Research and other technical activities in Council response to the needs of transit service providers. The scope of tcrp The members of the technical advisory panel selected to includes a variety of transit Research fields including planning, monitor this project and to review this report were chosen for service configuration, equipment, facilities, operations, human recognized scholarly competence and with due consideration for the resources, maintenance, policy, and administrative practices balance of disciplines appropriate to the project.
10 The opinions and tcrp was established under FTA sponsorship in July 1992. conclusions expressed or implied are those of the Research agency Proposed by the U that performed the Research , and while they have been accepted as S. Department of Transportation , tcrp was authorized as part of the appropriate by the technical panel, they are not necessarily those of Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA). the Transportation Research Board , the Transit Development On May 13, 1992, a memorandum agreement outlining tcrp Corporation, the National Research Council, or the Federal Transit operating procedures was executed by the three cooperating Administration of the U S Department of Transportation organizations: FTA, the National Academy of Sciences, acting Each report is reviewed and accepted for publication by the through the Transportation Research Board (TRB), and the Transit technical panel according to procedures established and monitored by Development Corporation, Inc.