1 THE Peanut institute FOOD FOR THOUGHT. Mediterranean-Style Diets are Causing Scientists to Take Another Look at Diet Recommendations Vol. 3 Issue 1. Recently, some scientists have started to are high in unsaturated fat and low in question the efficacy of low-fat diets in pro- saturated fat, are being assessed in terms of: moting heart health. Research has shown that the quality of the fat in the diet, rather High- to moderate-fat diets vs. low-fat diets;. than the quantity, may make a difference Benefits of plant-based diets; and when it comes to preventing chronic disease. Eating satisfaction of healthy, As a result, Mediterranean-style diets, which traditional diets. What is a Mediterranean-Style Diet? The Mediterranean-style diet is based on the Consensus Statement dietary traditions of the people of the many 1998 International Conference on the Mediterranean Diet regions bordering the Mediterranean Sea, There is increasing scientific evidence that there are including Greece, Southern Italy, Spain, South- positive health effects from diets that are high in fruits, ern France, Tunisia, Lebanon, and Morocco.
2 Vegetables, legumes, and whole grains, which include They eat an abundance of fruits, vegetables, fish, nuts, and low fat dairy products. Such diets need not nuts and legumes, and whole grains; some be restricted in total fat as long as there is not an excess dairy products, fish and poultry; and very small of calories and the diet is low in saturated and partially amounts of meats. The main source of fat, hydrogenated oils. Diets that emphasize vegetable oils (predominantly monounsaturated), nuts, and fish are which usually constitutes 35-40% of calories, is preferable to those high in animal products and partially monounsaturated fat from olive oil and nuts and hydrogenated oils. Many individuals will have to limit their omega-3 fat from fish (1).
3 In addition, a Mediter- fat or carbohydrate intake to avoid excess calories.. ranean-style diet includes moderate amounts of Nutrition Today July/August 1998. alcohol, particularly wine, which has been associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascu- .. lar disease and seems to be compatible with a healthy lifestyle (2). INSIDE. PAGE. The Mediterranean Diet Pyramid 2. Mediterranean diets have long been known LBS OFF Mediterranean-Style . for their many delicious tastes and flavors. Weight Loss Diet 3. Recently, the many health benefits of Mediter- Nutrition Research Highlights 4. ranean-style eating are being realized. The Mediterranean Diet Pyramid Today, peanuts and Peanut butter are classified in the USDA. RED.
4 Food Guide Pyramid with meat, poultry, fish, dry beans, eggs, MEAT. and nuts because of their high protein content. But peanuts are SWEETS Mediterranean actually legumes, making them an excellent source of plant EGGS. Food Pyramid POULTRY. protein with no cholesterol. Peanuts also contain monoun- saturated (good) fat, fiber, and many other hard-to-get FISH. nutrients such as folate, niacin, vitamin E, magnesium, CHEESE AND YOGURT. copper, and phosphorus. OLIVE OIL. The Traditional Healthy Mediterranean Diet Pyramid BEANS, developed by Oldways Preservation & Exchange FRUITS. OTHER. VEGETABLES. LEGUMES. Trust in conjunction with Harvard School of & NUTS. Public Health and The World Health Organiza- tion places nuts, peanuts, Peanut butter, and other legumes and seeds on the same level BREADS, PASTA, RICE, COUSCOUS, POLENTA, BULGUR, as fruits and vegetables that should be OTHER GRAINS, AND POTATOES.
5 Eaten daily. LBS OFF Mediterranean-Style Weight Loss Diet A Mediterranean weight-loss diet can be adapted to different cultures. In addition, it can provide more variability and palatability than traditional weight-loss diets. Researchers at Harvard School of Public Health in Boston, Massachusetts, have found that patients are twice as likely to stick to a high monounsaturated fat diet that includes foods like peanuts and other nuts, Peanut butter, avocados and olive oil as sources of good fat in the diet (4). The following is a one day menu sample: Breakfast Snacks 1 egg white and 1/4 green pepper saut ed 1 oz. (15 whole) roasted peanuts in 2 tsp. canola, Peanut , or olive oil 1/2 cup frozen vanilla yogurt 1 slice whole wheat bread with 1 tsp.
6 Peanut butter Dinner 1 banana 3 oz. large shrimp and 2 cups seasonal coffee or tea vegetables sauteed in 2 tsp. Peanut oil 1 cup skim milk Lunch coffee or tea Cook 3 oz. skinless chicken breast and cups fresh spinach in 1 tbsp. olive oil/1 Nutrient Profile: tbsp. vinegar mixture Calories= 1500. 1 sesame seed breadstick Cholesterol= 219 mg 1 cup skim milk Total fat= 37% (7% saturated fat). 1 orange Fiber= g Page 2 The Peanut institute 1-888-8 Peanut . Nutrition Research Highlights Scientists think that in addition to the monounsaturated fat in peanuts, other components contribute to their heart healthfulness. Potentially protective nutrients include high amounts of plant protein, mag- nesium, vitamin E, fiber, and potassium (5).
7 In addition, many plant sterols and phytochemicals are still being discovered in peanuts, making them a complex food with many health benefits. Epidemiological Studies triglyceride levels by 13%. In addition, the high The evidence linking frequent Peanut and nut MUFA diets did not lower beneficial HDL. consumption to a 25-50% reduced risk of heart cholesterol levels, like the low-fat diet did (8). disease (5,6,7) is strong. Two new studies further confirm that frequently eating a small Phytochemicals amount of peanuts promotes heart health. Researchers at the USDA Agricultural Research Service at North Carolina State In The Nurses' Health Study published in University have identified resveratrol, the the November 1998 British Medical Journal, phytochemical in red wine, in peanuts (9).
8 The researchers at Harvard School of Public Health French Paradox associates resveratrol's found that frequent consumption of peanuts presence in red wine with reduced cardiovas- and nuts was associated with a lowered risk of cular disease and refers to the fact that, coronary heart disease (CHD). (5) Even after despite consuming a relatively high-fat diet, adjusting for age, smoking, and other known the French have surprisingly low rates of heart risk factors for CHD, of the 86,000 women in disease (10). this study, those who ate more than five servings of nuts, peanuts, and Peanut butter Peanuts also contain other plant chemicals, per week decreased their risk of heart disease such as phytosterols and isoflavones.
9 B-sito- by about one third, compared to women who sterol (SIT), a phytosterol thought to inhibit can- rarely or never ate nuts. cer growth, has been identified in peanuts, Peanut butter, Peanut flour and Peanut oil. SIT. Preliminary results of the Physicians' Health may offer protection from colon, prostate and Study, presented at the American Heart Associ- breast cancer. The amount of protective SIT. ation 1998 Scientific Sessions, found similar found in unrefined Peanut oil (191 SIT/100 gm). results. In a group of 22,000 male physicians, is comparable to that of soybean oil (183. the risk of cardiac death and sudden death SIT/100 gm) and greater than unrefined olive oil decreased as nut consumption increased (6).
10 (139 SIT/gm) (11). Cholesterol Lowering Diets Eating Satisfaction A Pennsylvania State University controlled A study at Purdue University found that, after study tested three different diets, all high in participants ate peanuts and Peanut butter, they monounsaturated fat (MUFA) and low in felt more satisfied over a three hour period than saturated fat and cholesterol a diet with after eating other high-carbohydrate snack peanuts and Peanut butter, one with Peanut oil, foods such as rice cakes (12). Additionally, and one with olive oil. Researchers found that since they were more satisfied by the higher these high MUFA diets, compared to the monounsaturated fat snack, they did not Average American Diet, lowered total choles- increase their daily calorie intake and did not terol by 11%, LDL cholesterol by 14%, and gain weight.